• Black (& other) markets – parallel second economy;
• Ethnically / territorially based economic organizations (within party &
• Cheka KGB (unlimited power, monopoly on violence against
citizens, massive economic empire);
• Extensive corruption within state system;
• Extensive use of informal channels (blat) that involved payoffs,
bribes, access, complicity;
• Illegal private enterprises (legal & illegal goods);
• Informal control over police, courts, investigative agencies;
• Existence of extensive criminal culture / underworld which began in
prisons & extended into society.
Organized crime in Russia not a new phenomenon.
Origins in Soviet Union.
Adapted to new conditions of transition. Transitional Conditions
• Weak state;
• State subverted from within;
• No rule of law;
• Lack of legal culture;
• Social / economic breakdown;
• Absence of civil society;
• Creation of sharp division between wealthy & poor. Categories of Organized Crime: