Chapter Nine Study Notes
Why is it wise to be cautious when interpreting test results?
-Psychological test is a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behavior.
- They measure individual differences that exist among people in abilities, interests and aspects of
-Test scores are interpreted by consulting test norms to find out what represents a high and low score.
What are the two main categories of psychological tests?
-Mental ability test and personality test.
What makes a test standardized?
-Standardization refers to the uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test.
-What makes a test standardized is when all subjects get the same instructions, questions, and same time
limit, so their scores can be compared meaningfully.
What are test norms and percentile scores?
-Test norms provide information about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to other
scores on that test.
-Test norms show whether you scored average, or above and below the average test score. It helps you
overall understand what your test score means.
-Percentile scores indicate the percentage of people who score at or below the score one has obtained.
What is reliability, and how can it be measured?
-Reliability refers to the measurement consistency of a test (or of other kinds of measurement techniques).
-Test-retest reliability is estimated by comparing subjects’ scores on two administrations of a test.
Reliability estimates should yield fairly high positive correlations.
What are the three types of test validity?
-Validity refers to the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure.
-3 types are content validity, criterion-related validity, and construct validity.
-Content validity: The content of a test is representative of the area it’s supposed to cover.
(Example) an exam that has questions that was covered in class, and the assigned readings.
-Criterion-related validity: When scores on a test are used to measure performance.
-Construct validity: When a test is used to measure a hypothetical construct.
When and how did intelligence testing begin?
-The first intelligence tests were derived by Sir Francis Galton, who sought to show that intelligence in
-It was invented over a hundred years ago.
What were Binet’s contributions to the progress of intelligence testing?
-Modern intelligence testing began with the work of Alfred Binet, a French psychologist who published
the first useful intelligence testing. Binet’s scale measured a child’s mental age.