Chapter Eleven Study Notes
1. What are the three stages of prenatal development and what happens in each stage?
- The germinal stage: It is the first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first
two weeks after conception. Zygote and fertilization process begins. Zygote becomes a
mass of cells that implants in the uterine wall and placental begins to form.
- The embryonic stage: It is the second stage or prenatal development, last from two weeks
until the end of the second month. Vital organs and bodily systems begin to form
(embryo), and spine, heart, and brain emerge, making it a great period of vulnerability.
- The fetal stage: It is the third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months
through birth. Rapid body growth, and bones and muscles begin to form, becomes a fetus
and physical movements occur, skeletal bones harden, and sex organs develop. Organs
grow and gradually begin to function.
2. Can maternal nutrition affect the fetus?
- Maternal nutrition (mal-nutrition) increases newborns’ risk for birth complications and
neurological (brain) deficits.
3. How about maternal drug use?
- Maternal consumptions of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs can have a variety of
negative effects on prenatal development. Although risks depend on the drug used, the
dose, and the phase of prenatal development.
4. Which maternal illnesses can be dangerous to the fetus?
- Maternal illnesses can interfere with prenatal development, and genital herpes and AIDS
can be passed to newborns at birth.
5. How important is prenatal health care?
- Many problems can be avoided if expectant mothers have access to good health care.
- The human life span can be separated into four broad periods; the prenatal period (between
conception and birth), the childhood period, the adolescence period, and the adulthood period
- Zygote is a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg (all of the other cells
in our bodies developed from this single cell).
- The prenatal period extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of
6. How is maturation to motor development?
- Motor development refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical
!The cephaocaudal trend: the head-to-foot direction of motor development.
!The proximodistal trend: the centre-outward direction of motor development