How common are mental disorders?
-Studies suggested that about one-fifth of the population exhibited clear signs of mental illness at
some point in their lives (life time prevalence).
!This is without substance-use (drugs)
-Including substance use, about one-third of the population exhibit clear signs of mental illness at
some point in their lives.
-From ages 18-54 (instead of everyone over 18), around 44% of the population will struggle with
some sort of psychological disorder at some point in their life.
-The most recent large-scale epidemiological study estimated the lifetime risk of a psychiatric
disorder to be 51%.
-1 in 10 Canadians over 15 years of age reported symptoms consistent with a mental disorder
-9.7% of males and 11.1% of females have a disorder.
-Most (68%) of people who reported symptoms of a disorder did not seek assistance.
*Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has increased astronomically over the last decade.
!One year prevalence (occurrence/commonness) of PTSD is 2.8%, with a lifetime prevalence of 7.2%.
*Diagnosis, etiology, and prognosis have been proven valuable in the treatment study of abnormality.
!Diagnosis involves distinguishing one illness from another.
!Etiology refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness.
!Prognosis is a forecast about the probably course of an illness.
*The diagnosis of a psychological disorder is based on an individual’s report of great personal distress.
*The three stereotypes about psychological disorders that are largely inaccurate are that psychological
disorders are inaccurate, people with psychological disorders are often violent and dangerous, and
people with psychological disorders behave in bizarre ways and are very different from normal people.
*Personality disorders are longstanding patterns of extreme, inflexible personality traits that are deviant or
maladaptive and lead to impaired functioning or subjective distress.
*Mental retardation refers to subnormal general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive
skills, originating before 18.
What are the five major anxiety disorders and what are their chief symptoms?
-Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): Marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to
any specific threat. Sometimes it is called free-floating anxiety because it is nonspecific. People with
this disorder worry constantly about yesterdays mistakes, and tomorrows problems. They worry
about minor matters related to family, finances, work, and personal illness. Their anxiety is
accompanied by physical symptoms such as diarrhea, trembling (shaky), muscle tension, dizziness,
fainting, sweating, and heart palpitations (shake/shiver).
-Phobic disorder: Marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no
realistic danger. This has more of a specific focus, and people are said to have a phobic disorder only
when their fears seriously interfere with their everyday behavior. Phobic reactions tend to be
accompanied by physical symptoms of anxiety, such as trembling and palpitations. Common phobic
disorders are acrophobia (fear of heights), claustrophobia (fear of small, enclosed areas),
brontophobia (fear of storms), hydrophobia (fear of water), and various animals and insect phobias.