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Lecture

PSY100Y5 Lecture Notes - Rudderless, Dishabituation, Secondary Sex Characteristic


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Ayesha Khan

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CHAPTER 11: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFESPAN
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Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development
Your life provides an illustration of two themes: transition and continuity
Psychologists study how people evolve through transitions over time
Children and their development are also affected by cultural and social forces
Development the sequence of age related changes that occur as a person progresses from
conception to death
o Includes both biological and behavioral changes
o Begins with conception and conceptions occurs with fertilization
Zygote a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and egg
o Other cells develop from this single cell, each containing chromosomes in the nucleus
which carry genes
Prenatal Period extends from conception to birth, usually including nine months of pregnancy
h
The Course of Prenatal Development
Germinal Stage first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first 2 weeks after
conception
o Begins when zygote is created through fertilization
o Placenta structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the
mother’s bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother. Takes place during
implantation process
Embryonic Stage second stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 weeks until the end of
the second month
o Embryo most of the vital organs and bodily systems begin to form in the developing
organism
o Structures like the heart spine emerge gradually as cell division becomes more
specialized
o All the basic physiological structures are being formed
Fetal Stage the 3rd stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 months through birth
o Rapid bodily growth, muscles and bones begin to form (in first 2 months)
o Now known as a fetus, and capable of physical movements as skeletal structures harden
o Sex organs start to develop during the third month
o Final three months of the parental period, brain cells multiply at a quickly
o Age of Viability the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth
(i.e. 22-26 weeks)
Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development
Maternal Nutrition severe maternal malnutrition can lead to increases in the birth
complications and neurological defects of a newborn
o Mother and fetus are linked through the placenta mother’s habits can affect prenatal
development and have long-term health consequences
Maternal Drug Use major source of concern about fetal and infant well being, as many drugs
consumed by a pregnant women can be passed on to the placenta
Impact of drugs on the embryo or fetus varies depending on the drug, dose and phase of prenatal
development
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive
alcohol use during pregnancy
o Ie. Microcephaly (a small head), heart defects, irritability, hyperactivity and delayed
mental and motor development
Maternal Illness fetus is defenseless against infections because its immune system matures
relatively late in the prenatal period
o May include AIDS, Flu, etc.
Prenatal Health Care good quality medical care that begins early in pregnancy is associated with
reduce prematurity and higher survival rates for infants
Recent studies suggest that prenatal development can “program” the fetal brain in ways that
influence one’s vulnerability to various types of illness decades later

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Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 11: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFESPAN
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The Wondrous Years of Childhood
Exploring the World: Motor Development
Motor Development refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical
activities
o Include grasping and reaching for objects, manipulating objects, sitting up, crawling,
walking and running
Basic Principles
o Cephalocaudal trend the head to foot direction of motor development. i.e. children
tend to gain control over the upper part of their bodies before the lower part.
o Proximodistal trend center-outward direction of motor development. i.e. children gain
control of their torso before their extremities.
o Early motor development depends on physical growth and maturation
o Maturation the development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one’s genetic
blueprint. Product of genetically programmed physical changes that come with age.
o Progress in motor development is attributed to infants’ experimentation and their learning
and remembering of the consequences of their activities
Understanding Developmental Norms
o Developmental Norms indicate the median age at which individuals display various
behaviors and abilities (Useful benchmarks)
Cultural Variations and Their Significance
o Highlights the relationship between experience and maturation i.e. practice
o Early motor development depends on maturation
o Later motor development acquire more specialized motor skills which may be unique to
their culture
Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament
Temperament characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity
o Infants show variability in temperament
Longitudinal Design investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of
time
o More sensitive to developmental influences and changes
o Can extend to over many years
o Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess have conducted a major longitudinal study of the
development of temperament
Cross Sectional Design investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a single
point in time
o Quicker, easier, and cheaper
Cohort Effects occur when differences between age groups are due to the groups growing up in
different time periods
Thomas and Chess found that “temperamental individuality is established by the time the infant
is 2-3 months old.”
3 Basic Styles (that were apparent in most children):
o Easy Children tend to be happy, regular in sleep, eating, adaptable, not readily upset
o Slow to Warm Up Children tended to be less cheery, less regular in sleep and eating,
slower in adapting to change. Wary of new experiences, and emotional reactivity is
moderate
o Difficult children glum, erratic in sleep and eating, resistant to change, and relatively
irritable
o Child’s temperament at 3 months was good indicator of later temperament
Jerome Kagan relied on direct observation of children in study of temperaments
o Inhibited Temperament shyness, timidity, wariness of unfamiliar people, objects and
events
o Uninhibited Temperament less restrained, approaching unfamiliar people, objects, and
events with little hesitation
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CHAPTER 11: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFESPAN
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o Reasonably stable
Early Emotional Development: Attachment
Attachment the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their
caregivers
Between 6-8 months, infants begin to show a preference for mom’s company and often protest
when separated
Separation Anxiety emotional distress seen in many infants when they have formed an
attachment
o Peaks around 14-18 months then begins to decline
Theories of Attachment
o Behaviorists argue that special attachment between infant and mother develops because
mothers are associated with powerful, reinforcing event of being fed
o Harlow removed monkeys from their mothers and replaced them with “substitute
mothers”. One type of artificial mother was made of terry cloth and could provide
contact comfort while the other mother was mad of wires to feed the babies. During the
experiment, they introduced to the babies a strange toy to frightened monkeys. The
results were not as predicted, the young monkeys scrambled for their cloth mothers, even
f they were not fed by them.
o John Bowlby argued that there must be a biological basis for attachment. Bowlby
assumed attachment to be part of natural selection, as infants are biologically
programmed to emit behavior that triggers an affectionate protective response from
parents.
o Analyzed attachment in terms of its survival value for infants, contemporary evolutionary
theorists emphasize how attachment contributes to parents’ and children’s reproductive
fitness
o Belsky argued that the nature of children’s early attachment experiences depends on the
character of their environments, and that these experiences chart the course of children’s
social development in ways that are adaptive for their environmental circumstances.
Patterns of Attachment
o Research by Mary Ainsworth suggests that attachment emerges out of a complex
interplay between infant and mother
o Strange Situation Procedure infants are exposed to a series of eight separation and
reunion episodes to assess the quality of their attachment
o Mothers who are sensitive and responsive to their child’s needs tend to evoke more
secure attachments than mothers who don’t
o Ainsworth found that infant mother attachments follow 3 patterns
Secure attachment play and explore with comfortably with mum present,
become visibly upset when she leaves and are quickly calmed by her return
Anxious-Ambivalent Attachment appear anxious even when their mum is
near and protest excessively when she leaves, but they are not particularly
comforted when she returns.
Avoidant Attachment seeks little contact with their mothers and often are
not distressed when she leaves
Disorganized Disoriented Attachment was added years later and these
children appear confused about whether they should approach or avoid their
mother and are especially insecure
Type of attachment that emerges between an infant and mother may depend on the nature of the
infant’s temperament as well as the mother’s sensitivity
Children can develop internal working models of the dynamics of close relationships that
influence their future interactions with a wide range of people
Culture and Attachment
o Separation anxiety emerges in children at about 6 to 8 months and peaks to about 14 to
18 months in cultures around the world
o Attachment is a universal feature of human development.
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