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Lecture 9

PSY100Y5 Lecture 9: PSY100 Motivation and Emotion Lecture

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Dax Urbszat

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PSY100 Motivation and Emotion Lecture Motivation - refers to the moving force that energizes behaviour • direction or goal of motives • strength of motives • one of the most powerful motivators: money, fear, pain, death (Existential anxiety) fear of failure: that others think you’re not good enough - motives reflect • biological needs • psychosocial needs Examples of biological motives in humans - hunger (2-3 weeks and people may turn to cannibalism) - thirst (days without water may die) - sex (manifested in desire for sexual activity even though it is not required for survival) - temperature (appropriate body temp_ - excretory motive (eliminate bodily waste) - sleep and rest motive (don’t sleep you will die) - activity motive (need for optimal level of stimulation and arousal, you don’t want to be bored and you don’t want to have too much to do either so you have to find the optimal amount for each unique person) (sensory deprivation is torture) - aggression motive (are we inherently aggressive? Many psychologists believe that humans are savages, no other species rape and murder, mass suicide, ethnic cleansing, torture, war. When it comes to aggressive species we are the worst, we are worse to our own species than any other species) • male chimpanzees all died and the females took over and eliminated aggression strength of our motives is linked to whether we have it or not - if you have a lot of sex you may not be as driven to have sex Example of social motives in humans - achievement motive (need to excel) - affiliation motive (need for social bonds) - autonomy motive (need for independence • forge your own destiny and be who you wanna be - nurturance motive (need to nourish and protect others) - dominance motive (need to influence and control others) • reason for a lot of killing and wars - exhibition motive (need to make an impression on others) - order motive (need for orderliness, tidiness, organization) - play motive (need for fun, relaxation, amusement) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs - humanist and usually they think that humans are special and have a special meaning and purpose and we have to find the meaning and purpose ad fulfill it - so we have to be an honest and genuine person, not arrogant but one that’s realistic in general they give back to others - we need to have each of the stages of needs met before we can move on to the next stage - physiological • hunger. Thirst - safety • housing, money, not being abuse - intimacy, emotional intimacy • love, the other person accepts you and you create this bond to achieve emotional intimacy - esteem • need for respect and you are motivated about what others want you to do • need to do what is acceptable - self actualization • helping others actually makes you feel better about yourself • e.g. if you’re feeling worthless, go volunteer and you’ll realize that others are worse off than you and they appreciate you it also boosts your self esteem • individuals that love what they do they have discovered their passion and that is their special passion Hypothalamic regulation of eating ❖ hypothalamus receives information regarding nutrient levels in body • lateral region - stimulation induces eating - lesions (destroy) of the lateral region produce starvation, they’ll stop eating bc they don’t have motivation to do it • ventromedial region - lesions induce overeating - stimulation inhibits eating ❖ low glucose and insulin levels induces hunger ❖ you can eat so much food for dinner and be so full but you can fit in a different kind of food experiment - the students ate ore when they knew they are gonna starve soon - the what the hell effect Sexual motivation - hormones: • organizational effects: prenatal exposure to androgens alters the neural circuits in brain and spinal cord, adult behavior of androgenized subject is masculine (in the absence of androgens, “Nature’s impulse is to create a female) • activation effects: alternation of adults levels of hormones can alter the intensity of a behavior that is modulated by that hormone (effects that are not permanent) - pheromones (released by animals during the sterile period and the males go crazy for the females) • they had men sweat and let the woman smell and the women were attracted to the shirts that was really buff men when they were ovulating so this is natures way of survival of the fittest • convey to us genetic information: when you see someone really attractive on the picture and then you meet her and you say no she’s not bc the pheromones have been detected and your DNA is too similar so if you guys mate then you may have complications - environmental cues • the idea of using sexual images to sell products, movies and how influenced we are about this evolutionary analysis of human sexual behaviour • parental investment - when that decides who and when they mate with - males fight with each other to mate with the female - in human beings its always the female, but bc of society etc, females have been owned by first their father until she’s married • patterns of sexual activity - general rule: men wanting to have more sexual variation and more numbers - based upon 2 strategies available to men
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