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Lecture 3

PSY100Y5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Limbic System, Schizophrenia, MidbrainPremium


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Lecture
3

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September 24, 2018
PSY100Y5
PROFESSOR DAX URBSZAT
LECTURE 3: NEUROANATOMY
Nervous system is a living tissue composed of cells
It is divided into 2 categories: glia and neurons
NEURONS receive, integrate and transfer information in the nervous system
They are the basic links for communication
A neuron consists of:
cell body containing the nucleus
dendrites which receive information
axon which transmits the signal from soma to other neurons or muscles and glands
myelin sheath encases some axons
terminal buttons that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
synapse is the point which interconnects neurons
Source: google

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GLIA
provide support to neurons and are found throughout the nervous system
Glia are much smaller than neurons but are present in more numbers than neurons
It plays a critical role in development of nervous system in human body
THE NEURAL IMPULSE: USING ENERGY TO SEND INFORMATION
It is a complex electrochemical reaction
Ions are the electrically charged atoms and molecules present both inside and
outside neurons
The movement of these ions is allowed by a semi-permeable cell membrane
We have two type of ions: positively charged sodium and potassium ions and
negatively charged chloride ions
Both these ions flow inside the cell membrane but at different rates
As long as the voltage of the neuron is constant, no message would be transmitted
from cell
Thus, action potential wakes up the neuron from its resting phase and make it travel
along the axon
In nervous system, the neural impulse works as a signal
Neurotransmitters carries information from one neuron to another
The synapse:
Once the neural impulse reaches terminal buttons, a chemical called
neurotransmitter is released
This molecule diffuses along the synaptic cleft and bind to receptor sites on
postsynaptic neuron
Common neurotransmitters and their functions:
Neurotransmitter functions and characteristics
1. Dopamine control voluntary movements, pleasurable
Emotions
2. Norepinephrine modulation of mood and arousal
3. Serotonin regulation of sleep, wakefulness, eating,
Aggression
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