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Lecture 2

PSY100Y5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Theta Wave, Delta Wave, Slow-Wave Sleep

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Dax Urbszat

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1. What is the difference between sensation and perception? [2 marks]
- Sensation is the stimulation of sensory organs by energy in the environment,
whereas perception is the selection, organization, and subjective interpretation of
sensory input.
2. What is an absolute threshold? [2 marks]
- An absolute threshold is the minimum amount of energy needed for a specific
sensory system to detect a stimulus in the environment 50% of the time.
3. Describe the main visual pathway in the brain. [3 marks]
- Neural impulses travel from the eye along the optic nerve and down the optic tract to
the thalamus, which then sends the messages to the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
(LGN). Visual information is sent from the LGN to the primary visual cortex. Here
the main pathway splits in two directions to the “what” and “where” pathways.
4. What are the three classes of human skin receptors? [3 marks]
–Touch: physical contact of objects with the skin
–Temperature of objects
–Pain: destruction of skin tissue
5. Describe the types of brain waves found during the five different stages of
sleep. [5 marks]
Stage 1: theta waves
Stage 2: theta waves with K complexes and spindles
Stage 3: mostly theta and delta waves (slow wave sleep) appear
Stage 4: mostly delta waves
REM: beta waves present and brain waves resemble waking activity
6. What is the name of the sleep disorder characterized by vivid, fear-
evoking dreams that occur during REM sleep? [1 mark]
a. Nightmares
7. Describe the Stroop task and state which part of a subject’s brain is most
activated while performing this task. [4 marks]
- subjects are asked to identify the color of a word. The words are names of colors
other than the actual color of the word e.g., R-E-D written in green color
- the right brain dominant color detection areas of the brain receive interference from
the language processing areas of the brain dominant in the left hemisphere and it thus
takes longer to identify the color
- this task is associated with activation of the dorso-lateral pre-frontal cortex
8. Describe the process of classical conditioning using an example from your
own life. [4 marks]
- Pair an unconditioned stimulus [meat powder] that elicits an unconditioned response
[salivation] with a neutral stimulus [a bell tone] over a period of several trials.
Eventually, the neutral stimulus [bell tone] will become a conditioned stimulus, as it
alone will elicit a conditioned response [salivation] the same or similar to the
unconditioned response.
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9. Explain and give examples for positive and negative reinforcement.
[4 marks]
- Negative reinforcement is when a negative or aversive stimulus is taken away by
some behavior thereby strengthening the tendency for that behavior to occur again.
An example is taking an aspirin to reduce a headache will increase the likelihood of
future aspirin taking. Positive reinforcement is when a positive or pleasant stimulus
follows some behavior and strengthens the tendency of that behavior to occur again.
An example is when a child does her homework she gets praise from her mother or
gets a gold star from her teacher increasing the likelihood of doing homework again in
the future.
10. Define and give an example of escape learning. [2 marks]
- this is a form of negative reinforcement where you escape a feared or
unpleasant stimulus and when you get away you feel so much better
L0201 T 2-4 Test 2 2007
1. Give a definition for, and an example of, sensation. [2 marks]
- Sensation is the stimulation of sensory organs by energy sources in the environment.
An example would be light particles being captured in the retina of the eye or
differences in air pressure being detected by the ossicles in the ear.
2. What is a Just Noticeable Difference? [1 mark]
- A JND is the smallest difference in the amount of stimulation that a specific sense
can detect.
3. Explain how light is converted into electrochemical impulses in the brain.
[3 marks]
- Light travels through the pupil to the retina where it contacts the photoreceptors
(rods and cones) and bleaches a pigment in the photoreceptors, which creates graded
receptor potentials that eventually lead (through bipolar and amacrine cells) to action
potentials in the ganglion cells.
4. Explain the Young-Hemholtz (tri-chromatic) theory of color vision and
provide two examples of phenomena that could not be explained by this
theory. [4 marks]
- The human eye has three types of receptors with differing sensitivities to different
light wavelengths (red, green, and blue). This theory does not account for why
afterimages of objects that are stared at, are seen in complimentary colors. It also does
not account for why dichromats have trouble distinguishing either red from green or
blue from yellow. [It does not account for why people prefer to use four colours (red,
green, blue, and yellow) to describe different color shades.]
5. Brain waves that occur when we are relaxed and calm are called
_____________ waves. [1 mark]
- alpha
6. Identify and explain three ideas of the functional significance of the
unconscious. [3 marks]
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