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PSY210H5 Lecture Notes - Palmar Grasp Reflex, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Fetal Movement

Course Code
Elizabeth Johnson

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Jan 22 2013
PSY 210- LEC 3
The Zygote:
The developing organism from the ime of the union of the srem and the egg to about
2nd week of gestation. Consists of the implementation of fertilized egg to the utrian
The Embryo:
2-8 week post conception. Consist of the differentiation of the major physiological
structures and systems.
The Fetal Period:
2 mnths after conception lasts till birth. Rapid muscular dev, dev in the CNS, fetal
movement usually by 4th mnth, reflexes usually appear about 5 mtnhs, eyes open
and close by 6th mnth.
Env risk:
Teratogens: env agents like drugs, medication, diet imbalance, or polluting
substance that may cause dev deviations in a growing human organism; most
threating in the embryonic stage. Teratogen most effected during critical periods (
first 2-8 weeks), each different teratogen exerts diff effects. Maternal or fetal
genotypes interact with effects of teratogens (more or less susceptible to certain
genotypes). Some may have no effect on the mother, the longer the exposure the
worse the effect. Smoking: leads to low births, increase risk of death, lower IQ etc.
Other Risks:
Premature babies: preterm babies, born prior to 38 weeks to conception. The
number of severity f problems increases as birth weight and age at birth decreases.
Chldern born very low in birth weight have more learning problems.
Stimulatins prgrammes including messags hlp offset negative outcomes on
prematre births. Parental contact important for both infant and parents. Long term
effects are depemdent on soci economic status and env.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: result of heavy alcohol use during pregnancy, lower IQ
scores, poor school performance, higher risk for dependency problems later in life.
Some fasical chracteristics: small head, small eye opening, thin upper lip, short nose.
Fetal alchol spectrum disorder: not the same as FAS, sypmtoms can range in type
and seerity, oftentime no facial cues to FASD.
Parental Age: increase fertility prolems with age, miscarriage more likely, more
likely to have a child with chromosomal abnormalities (40+ moms). Older fathers
MAY contribute to the outcomes, teen moms are at the greatest risk cause they
probably won’t take the medical care that mthers of the 20’s or 30’s would. Can also
contribute to multiple births as a woman ages
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