PSY230H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Intelligence Quotient, American Psychological Association, Flynn Effect

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Published on 19 Nov 2016
School
Department
Course
Intelligence
Individual differences in intelligence are real and have profound real-
world implications
The good new for you- UTM students- is that you are very likely to be
above average in intelligence
What is Intelligence?
General intelligence (Spearman, 1904)
o Performances on different intellectual task are positively correlated
(vocabulary, digit memory, spatial ability, etc.)
o Factor analysis of various tasks shows one general factor (G-factor)
Multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1983)
o Intelligence profiles (different rank order) on different tasks
(linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic,
musical, and personal intelligence)
Hierarchal Model of Intelligence
Different Types of Intelligence
Fluid intelligence (eg. Raven Progressive Matrices, abstract tasks)
Crystallized intelligence (language, vocabulary, world knowledge)
Causes of individual differences in intelligence?
o Correlations between adult twin pairs
o Evidence for environmental Effects: Adoption Studies
Adoption from low SES families into middle-class families
increased IQ by 12 points
IQ of adopted children more similar to biological parents than
to adopted parents
Effects of nature remain, effects of nurture become weaker as
children grow up
Conclusion
o American Psychological Association (APA) task force
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o Heritability of IQ after late adolescence is about 0.75
o No effect of shared environment in adulthood
o For children heritability is lower (~45%)
o For children shared environment has an effect (>20%)
New (2012) Evidence from Molecular Genetics Studies: Effect of Candidate
Genes on IQ
Does Breastfeeding Increase IQ?
For most children (90% of the population), breast feeding was a
predictor of higher IQ (~7 points)
For these children, breast feeding was also a predictor of mother's IQ
(~8 points)
After controlling for the effect of mother's IQ on children's IQ, the effect
of breastfeeding is smaller (~4-5 points)
New formulas include fatty acids that may simulate the effect of breast
milk
Do These Effects Last?
Based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY)
Effect on IQ in adolescence is small (<1 point, after controlling for
maternal IQ)
There is no significant difference in IQ between a breastfed and a non-
breastfed sibling (<1 IQ point)
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