PSY230H5 Lecture 8: Week 8

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7 Nov 2018
School
Department
Course
Which statement/s about the influence of the shared environment on personality
traits is/are correct?
How much variance does the shared environment explain?
A. Less than 10%
B. 10% to 20%
C. 20-30%
D. 30-40%
E. More than 40%
What is the key finding of a longitudinal twin study of religiosity?
A. Genes have no influence on religiosity.
A. Parents have no influence on their childrens religiosity.
B. Parents have a strong influence on their childrens religiosity in adulthood.
D. The influence of parents decreases over time and in adulthood nearly all of the
variance is explained by the unshared environment.
E. The influence of parents decreases over time and in adulthood genes and the
unshared environment explain most of the variance.
Which neurotransmitter has been linked to mood regulation and depression?
A. Dopamine
B. Serotonin
C. Oxitocin
D. Acetylcholine
E. Noradrenaline
Environmental Influences on Personality: Cross-Cultural Differences Historic Changes
Culture and Personality:History
Thriving field in the 1920s
- psychoanalytic theories
- no empirical data
- no lasting contribution
Challenge of trait theory by cultural psychologists
- traits are an invention of Western culture
- even stronger effect of situation in non-
Western cultures
- no empirical evidence
Modern research
- looking for cultural influences on personality
in cross-national comparisons.
Culture
Personality psychologists typically study within-nation variation.
Within-nation studies fail to reveal the influence of culture on personality.
Cross-national studies can reveal effects of culture on personality.
In a cross-cultural study, how much of the variance in personality traits (Big Five) is
between nations (versus variation within nations)?
A. 0-20% B. 20-40% C. 40-60% D. 60-80% E. > 80%
Cultures/Nations
Culture
- common social practices (universal health care)
- prevalent beliefs, values, norms (love hockey)
Cultures is difficult to measure.
Most studies compare national averages to study culture.
Other studies try to relate cultural variables to personality.
- Individualism
-GDP
- Literacy rates
Correlations of Individualism with other Characteristics of Nations
Individualism
Wealth .75
Quality of Life .74
Corruption -.79
Human rights .71
Human Development Index .66
National Differences in Personality (Big Five)
One article examined national differences across 24 nations based on self-ratings of
personality.
Another study asked students in 50 nations to rate the personality of somebody they
know.
What explains national differences in personality?
Ideographic: examine personality profile of one country
Nomothetic: correlate variation in nations average level of personality with other
cultural dimensions.
Correlations of Big Five and Individualism
N E O A C
2001 -.01 .52 .41 -.38 -.38
2005 .05 .51 .33 .37 -.14
Explanations for National Differences in Extraversion/Openness
Culture influences personality.
- more interactions with strangers
- less reliance on family for social needs
Socialization or Genetic Differences?
- fluctuating optimum
What do you think?
A. Socialization, B. Genetic Differences, C. Both
Acculturation
Acculturation: Changes in the behaviors, feelings, and thoughts of individuals after
living in a new culture.
Acculturation studies are particularly useful in sorting out these possibilities because
individuals from the same gene pool are studied under different cultural conditions.
(McCrae, 1991, p. 840).
Does Acculturation Change Personality?
Participants.
- 314 European Canadians
- 319 Chinese Canadians
- 112 born in Canada
- 100 immigrated before 1986
- 107 immigrated after 1986
Materials. Participants completed the NEO-PI-R in English.
Change in Personality or Personality Ratings?
Participants. Chinese Canadians.
Materials. Participants completed two reports for Chinese Canadian friends of the
same sex:
- a friend born in Canada
- a friend who immigrated to Canada after 1989.
Purpose: Ratings are made by the same participants.
Results. Peer-ratings replicate an acculturation effect on extraversion and openness.
Behavioral Evidence
Few studies have used behavioral measures!!!
Method. 13 undergraduate observers recorded student participation (public
questions, answers, or opinions) in their courses. They also recorded the gender and
ethnicity of the students who participated.
Active Class Participation at UBC
Method. 13 undergraduate observers recorded student ethnicity and class
participation (public questions, answers, or opinions) in their courses.
Main finding. Participation rates were significantly lower (21%) for East Asian
Canadian students than for European Canadian (41%) students.
Own Research
Kim, Schimmack, & Oishi (JPSP, 2012)
over 900 European and Asian Canadian students at UTM.
Self-ratings and ratings of friend/dating partner.
Cultural differences in halo bias (more favorable ratings of self and other by European
Canadians)
No significant differences in actual personality after controlling for halo!
Cultural Differences versus Cultural Stereotypes
Effect Sizes
Cultural differences in the Big Five personality traits are small (less than 10% variance
between nations, 90% of the variance or more within nations).
Specific behaviors and attitudes can be shaped more strongly by culture (e.g., food
preferences)
Historic Trends: Do cultural changes change personality?
Despite high heritabiltiy of height, height has increased considerably over the past
century.
Extraversion
A meta-analysis of all studies that reported mean levels of extraversion for men (N =
54) and women (N = 50) between 1966 and 1993.
The correlation between year and extraversion was .76 for men and .71 for women.
Conclusion: Extraversion scores have increased over the past decades.
Neuroticism
A meta-analysis of over 100 studies that reported neuroticism scores between 1952
and 1993.
The correlation between year and neuroticism was .56 for men and .49 for women.
Conclusion: Neuroticism increased over the past decades.
Conclusion
Historic studies show further evidence for cultural effects on personality.
The increase in extraversion in North America is consistent with North America
becoming increasingly individualistic.
The increase in neuroticism may be due to an increasingly complex and stressful
lifestyle.
Values and motives
Values and Motives
Motives and values are psychological causes of behavior (e.g., voting).
Motives and values vary across individuals.
Hence, individual differences in motives and values are an important topic for
personality psychology.
Multiple Motives
1. Others have postulated lists of fundamental human motives.
2. All items on the list may be essential for many people
3. Cultures and individuals differ in the relative importance of items on the list
Values and Individualism
Openness to Change, r= .56
- replication of Big Five studies
Self-enhancement, r= -.31
- no clear pattern for agreeableness
Conclusion
Modern, individualistic cultures like Canada promote openness.
The World Value Survey
Large sample of nations
national representative samples
data are freely available on the web
Relation with Individualism
Survival Well-Being is highly correlated with Individualism and Wealth (r= .64).
-self-expression becomes more important when
survival needs are fulfilled.
Tradition Secular Rational is only weakly related to individualism and wealth
(r= .27).
Value Preferences of UTM students
Unpublished Data
Participants. 479 UTM students.
Method.
Assessment of Schwatz’s 10 values with the Pairwise Comparison Value Survey.
Example: Which value is more important to you? Power or Achievement
To simplify matters, the following analyses are based on the two major dimensions
underlying value preferences:
Self-enhancement vs. Self-transcendence:
Power + Achievement - Universalism - Benevolence
Openness to Change vs. Conservatism:
Hedonism + Stimulation - Tradition - Conformity
Consequences of Value Preferences
Value preferences are related to career choices
(Business students value power more than Psychology students)
Value preferences influence social preferences
- mate choices (assortative mating)
- political values influence friendships
Diversity in values is a greater challenge than diversity in personality traits.
- introversion vs. extraversion
- liberals vs. conservatives
Week 8
Wednesday, November 7, 2018
12:02 PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
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Which statement/s about the influence of the shared environment on personality
traits is/are correct?
How much variance does the shared environment explain?
A. Less than 10%
B. 10% to 20%
C. 20-30%
D. 30-40%
E. More than 40%
What is the key finding of a longitudinal twin study of religiosity?
A. Genes have no influence on religiosity.
A. Parents have no influence on their childrens religiosity.
B. Parents have a strong influence on their childrens religiosity in adulthood.
D. The influence of parents decreases over time and in adulthood nearly all of the
variance is explained by the unshared environment.
E. The influence of parents decreases over time and in adulthood genes and the
unshared environment explain most of the variance.
Which neurotransmitter has been linked to mood regulation and depression?
A. Dopamine
B. Serotonin
C. Oxitocin
D. Acetylcholine
E. Noradrenaline
Environmental Influences on Personality: Cross-Cultural Differences Historic Changes
Culture and Personality:History
Thriving field in the 1920s
- psychoanalytic theories
- no empirical data
- no lasting contribution
Challenge of trait theory by cultural psychologists
- traits are an invention of Western culture
- “even stronger” effect of situation in non-
Western cultures
- no empirical evidence
Modern research
- looking for cultural influences on personality
in cross-national comparisons.
Culture
Personality psychologists typically study within-nation variation.
Within-nation studies fail to reveal the influence of culture on personality.
Cross-national studies can reveal effects of culture on personality.
In a cross-cultural study, how much of the variance in personality traits (Big Five) is
between nations (versus variation within nations)?
A. 0-20% B. 20-40% C. 40-60% D. 60-80% E. > 80%
Cultures/Nations
Culture
- common social practices (universal health care)
- prevalent beliefs, values, norms (love hockey)
Cultures is difficult to measure.
Most studies compare national averages to study culture.
Other studies try to relate cultural variables to personality.
- Individualism
-GDP
- Literacy rates
Correlations of Individualism with other Characteristics of Nations
Individualism
Wealth .75
Quality of Life .74
Corruption -.79
Human rights .71
Human Development Index .66
National Differences in Personality (Big Five)
One article examined national differences across 24 nations based on self-ratings of
personality.
Another study asked students in 50 nations to rate the personality of somebody they
know.
What explains national differences in personality?
Ideographic: examine personality profile of one country
Nomothetic: correlate variation in nations average level of personality with other
cultural dimensions.
Correlations of Big Five and Individualism
N E O A C
2001 -.01 .52 .41 -.38 -.38
2005 .05 .51 .33 .37 -.14
Explanations for National Differences in Extraversion/Openness
Culture influences personality.
- more interactions with strangers
- less reliance on family for social needs
Socialization or Genetic Differences?
- fluctuating optimum
What do you think?
A. Socialization, B. Genetic Differences, C. Both
Acculturation
Acculturation: Changes in the behaviors, feelings, and thoughts of individuals after
living in a new culture.
Acculturation studies are particularly useful in sorting out these possibilities because
individuals from the same gene pool are studied under different cultural conditions.
(McCrae, 1991, p. 840).
Does Acculturation Change Personality?
Participants.
- 314 European Canadians
- 319 Chinese Canadians
- 112 born in Canada
- 100 immigrated before 1986
- 107 immigrated after 1986
Materials. Participants completed the NEO-PI-R in English.
Change in Personality or Personality Ratings?
Participants. Chinese Canadians.
Materials. Participants completed two reports for Chinese Canadian friends of the
same sex:
- a friend born in Canada
- a friend who immigrated to Canada after 1989.
Purpose: Ratings are made by the same participants.
Results. Peer-ratings replicate an acculturation effect on extraversion and openness.
Behavioral Evidence
Few studies have used behavioral measures!!!
Method. 13 undergraduate observers recorded student participation (public
questions, answers, or opinions) in their courses. They also recorded the gender and
ethnicity of the students who participated.
Active Class Participation at UBC
Method. 13 undergraduate observers recorded student ethnicity and class
participation (public questions, answers, or opinions) in their courses.
Main finding. Participation rates were significantly lower (21%) for East Asian
Canadian students than for European Canadian (41%) students.
Own Research
Kim, Schimmack, & Oishi (JPSP, 2012)
over 900 European and Asian Canadian students at UTM.
Self-ratings and ratings of friend/dating partner.
Cultural differences in halo bias (more favorable ratings of self and other by European
Canadians)
No significant differences in actual personality after controlling for halo!
Cultural Differences versus Cultural Stereotypes
Effect Sizes
Cultural differences in the Big Five personality traits are small (less than 10% variance
between nations, 90% of the variance or more within nations).
Specific behaviors and attitudes can be shaped more strongly by culture (e.g., food
preferences)
Historic Trends: Do cultural changes change personality?
Despite high heritabiltiy of height, height has increased considerably over the past
century.
Extraversion
A meta-analysis of all studies that reported mean levels of extraversion for men (N =
54) and women (N = 50) between 1966 and 1993.
The correlation between year and extraversion was .76 for men and .71 for women.
Conclusion: Extraversion scores have increased over the past decades.
Neuroticism
A meta-analysis of over 100 studies that reported neuroticism scores between 1952
and 1993.
The correlation between year and neuroticism was .56 for men and .49 for women.
Conclusion: Neuroticism increased over the past decades.
Conclusion
Historic studies show further evidence for cultural effects on personality.
The increase in extraversion in North America is consistent with North America
becoming increasingly individualistic.
The increase in neuroticism may be due to an increasingly complex and stressful
lifestyle.
Values and motives
Values and Motives
Motives and values are psychological causes of behavior (e.g., voting).
Motives and values vary across individuals.
Hence, individual differences in motives and values are an important topic for
personality psychology.
Multiple Motives
1. Others have postulated lists of fundamental human motives.
2. All items on the list may be essential for many people
3. Cultures and individuals differ in the relative importance of items on the list
Values and Individualism
Openness to Change, r= .56
- replication of Big Five studies
Self-enhancement, r= -.31
- no clear pattern for agreeableness
Conclusion
Modern, individualistic cultures like Canada promote openness.
The World Value Survey
Large sample of nations
national representative samples
data are freely available on the web
Relation with Individualism
Survival Well-Being is highly correlated with Individualism and Wealth (r= .64).
-self-expression becomes more important when
survival needs are fulfilled.
Tradition Secular Rational is only weakly related to individualism and wealth
(r= .27).
Value Preferences of UTM students
Unpublished Data
Participants. 479 UTM students.
Method.
Assessment of Schwatz’s 10 values with the Pairwise Comparison Value Survey.
Example: Which value is more important to you? Power or Achievement
To simplify matters, the following analyses are based on the two major dimensions
underlying value preferences:
Self-enhancement vs. Self-transcendence:
Power + Achievement - Universalism - Benevolence
Openness to Change vs. Conservatism:
Hedonism + Stimulation - Tradition - Conformity
Consequences of Value Preferences
Value preferences are related to career choices
(Business students value power more than Psychology students)
Value preferences influence social preferences
- mate choices (assortative mating)
- political values influence friendships
Diversity in values is a greater challenge than diversity in personality traits.
- introversion vs. extraversion
- liberals vs. conservatives
Week 8
Wednesday, November 7, 2018 12:02 PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Which statement/s about the influence of the shared environment on personality
traits is/are correct?
How much variance does the shared environment explain?
A. Less than 10%
B. 10% to 20%
C. 20-30%
D. 30-40%
E. More than 40%
What is the key finding of a longitudinal twin study of religiosity?
A. Genes have no influence on religiosity.
A. Parents have no influence on their childrens religiosity.
B. Parents have a strong influence on their childrens religiosity in adulthood.
D. The influence of parents decreases over time and in adulthood nearly all of the
variance is explained by the unshared environment.
E. The influence of parents decreases over time and in adulthood genes and the
unshared environment explain most of the variance.
Which neurotransmitter has been linked to mood regulation and depression?
A. Dopamine
B. Serotonin
C. Oxitocin
D. Acetylcholine
E. Noradrenaline
Environmental Influences on Personality: Cross-Cultural Differences Historic Changes
Culture and Personality:History
Thriving field in the 1920s
- psychoanalytic theories
- no empirical data
- no lasting contribution
Challenge of trait theory by cultural psychologists
- traits are an invention of Western culture
- even stronger effect of situation in non-
Western cultures
- no empirical evidence
Modern research
- looking for cultural influences on personality
in cross-national comparisons.
Culture
Personality psychologists typically study within-nation variation.
Within-nation studies fail to reveal the influence of culture on personality.
Cross-national studies can reveal effects of culture on personality.
In a cross-cultural study, how much of the variance in personality traits (Big Five) is
between nations (versus variation within nations)?
A. 0-20% B. 20-40% C. 40-60% D. 60-80% E. > 80%
Cultures/Nations
Culture
- common social practices (universal health care)
- prevalent beliefs, values, norms (love hockey)
Cultures is difficult to measure.
Most studies compare national averages to study culture.
Other studies try to relate cultural variables to personality.
- Individualism
-GDP
- Literacy rates
Correlations of Individualism with other Characteristics of Nations
Individualism
Wealth .75
Quality of Life .74
Corruption -.79
Human rights .71
Human Development Index .66
National Differences in Personality (Big Five)
One article examined national differences across 24 nations based on self-ratings of
personality.
Another study asked students in 50 nations to rate the personality of somebody they
know.
What explains national differences in personality?
Ideographic: examine personality profile of one country
Nomothetic: correlate variation in nations average level of personality with other
cultural dimensions.
Correlations of Big Five and Individualism
N E O A C
2001 -.01 .52 .41 -.38 -.38
2005 .05 .51 .33 .37 -.14
Explanations for National Differences in Extraversion/Openness
Culture influences personality.
- more interactions with strangers
- less reliance on family for social needs
Socialization or Genetic Differences?
- fluctuating optimum
What do you think?
A. Socialization, B. Genetic Differences, C. Both
Acculturation
Acculturation: Changes in the behaviors, feelings, and thoughts of individuals after
living in a new culture.
Acculturation studies are particularly useful in sorting out these possibilities because
individuals from the same gene pool are studied under different cultural conditions.
(McCrae, 1991, p. 840).
Does Acculturation Change Personality?
Participants.
- 314 European Canadians
- 319 Chinese Canadians
- 112 born in Canada
- 100 immigrated before 1986
- 107 immigrated after 1986
Materials. Participants completed the NEO-PI-R in English.
Change in Personality or Personality Ratings?
Participants. Chinese Canadians.
Materials. Participants completed two reports for Chinese Canadian friends of the
same sex:
- a friend born in Canada
- a friend who immigrated to Canada after 1989.
Purpose: Ratings are made by the same participants.
Results. Peer-ratings replicate an acculturation effect on extraversion and openness.
Behavioral Evidence
Few studies have used behavioral measures!!!
Method. 13 undergraduate observers recorded student participation (public
questions, answers, or opinions) in their courses. They also recorded the gender and
ethnicity of the students who participated.
Active Class Participation at UBC
Method. 13 undergraduate observers recorded student ethnicity and class
participation (public questions, answers, or opinions) in their courses.
Main finding. Participation rates were significantly lower (21%) for East Asian
Canadian students than for European Canadian (41%) students.
Own Research
Kim, Schimmack, & Oishi (JPSP, 2012)
over 900 European and Asian Canadian students at UTM.
Self-ratings and ratings of friend/dating partner.
Cultural differences in halo bias (more favorable ratings of self and other by European
Canadians)
No significant differences in actual personality after controlling for halo!
Cultural Differences versus Cultural Stereotypes
Effect Sizes
Cultural differences in the Big Five personality traits are small (less than 10% variance
between nations, 90% of the variance or more within nations).
Specific behaviors and attitudes can be shaped more strongly by culture (e.g., food
preferences)
Historic Trends: Do cultural changes change personality?
Despite high heritabiltiy of height, height has increased considerably over the past
century.
Extraversion
A meta-analysis of all studies that reported mean levels of extraversion for men (N =
54) and women (N = 50) between 1966 and 1993.
The correlation between year and extraversion was .76 for men and .71 for women.
Conclusion: Extraversion scores have increased over the past decades.
Neuroticism
A meta-analysis of over 100 studies that reported neuroticism scores between 1952
and 1993.
The correlation between year and neuroticism was .56 for men and .49 for women.
Conclusion: Neuroticism increased over the past decades.
Conclusion
Historic studies show further evidence for cultural effects on personality.
The increase in extraversion in North America is consistent with North America
becoming increasingly individualistic.
The increase in neuroticism may be due to an increasingly complex and stressful
lifestyle.
Values and motives
Values and Motives
Motives and values are psychological causes of behavior (e.g., voting).
Motives and values vary across individuals.
Hence, individual differences in motives and values are an important topic for
personality psychology.
Multiple Motives
1. Others have postulated lists of fundamental human motives.
2. All items on the list may be essential for many people
3. Cultures and individuals differ in the relative importance of items on the list
Values and Individualism
Openness to Change, r= .56
- replication of Big Five studies
Self-enhancement, r= -.31
- no clear pattern for agreeableness
Conclusion
Modern, individualistic cultures like Canada promote openness.
The World Value Survey
Large sample of nations
national representative samples
data are freely available on the web
Relation with Individualism
Survival Well-Being is highly correlated with Individualism and Wealth (r= .64).
-self-expression becomes more important when
survival needs are fulfilled.
Tradition Secular Rational is only weakly related to individualism and wealth
(r= .27).
Value Preferences of UTM students
Unpublished Data
Participants. 479 UTM students.
Method.
Assessment of Schwatz’s 10 values with the Pairwise Comparison Value Survey.
Example: Which value is more important to you? Power or Achievement
To simplify matters, the following analyses are based on the two major dimensions
underlying value preferences:
Self-enhancement vs. Self-transcendence:
Power + Achievement - Universalism - Benevolence
Openness to Change vs. Conservatism:
Hedonism + Stimulation - Tradition - Conformity
Consequences of Value Preferences
Value preferences are related to career choices
(Business students value power more than Psychology students)
Value preferences influence social preferences
- mate choices (assortative mating)
- political values influence friendships
Diversity in values is a greater challenge than diversity in personality traits.
- introversion vs. extraversion
- liberals vs. conservatives
Week 8
Wednesday, November 7, 2018 12:02 PM
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