PSY230H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: The Delay, Neuroticism, Extraversion And Introversion

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14 Nov 2018
School
Department
Course
Conscious and Unconscious Motives
Impulses versus Willpower
Repressive Coping
Iclicker: Which Big Five dimension do you think is most strongly related to will-
power?
Neuroticism
A.
Extraversion
B.
Openness to Experience
C.
Agreeableness
D.
Conscientiousness
E.
Key Concept: Willpower, Volition, Impulse-Control
Everyday trait words related to will-power:
Strong-minded, headstrong, deliberate, controlled, powerful, strong, determined,
tenacious, resolute, unwavering, firm, untiring, persistent, relentless, unrelenting,
assertive, forceful, dedicated, fanatic, stubborn
Definition:
maintain focus on a conscious goal (intention)
shield it from distraction by impulses
overcome obstacles in the pursuit of the goal
What is the differences between unconscious and conscious influences of behavior?
Unconscious motives are influences by salient stimuli in the immediate environment
(short-term perspective).
Conscious influences require active retrieval of long-term goals from memory (long-
term perspective).
“Willpower is just another name for theidea of choosing according to long-term
outcomes rather than short-term ones.“ (Damasio, 1994)
The Delay of Gratification Paradigm
4-years old children learn to play a game
Shown marshmallows
If they wait for 20 minutes, they will get 2 marshmallows. If they can’t wait, they
can ring the bell, and get 1 marshmallow.
Does delay of gratification at age 4 predict life outcomes?
10-years after the original delay of gratification studies, parents were asked to
rate the personality of their adolescent children.
Children who delayed gratification longer were
-more academically competent
-more socially competent
-more verbally fluent, rational and attentive
-more planful
-better able to deal with frustration and stress
Conclusion
Will-power shows temporal stability
Will-power is related to adjustment and academic performance in school.
Method
Participants. 69 high school students (age 16).
34 problem students (guidance counselors’ evaluations). 35 students were non-
problem students.
Procedure.
Choice between $7 now and $10 in one week.
(half took $7 now)
Measures.
-Grades (scale 0-100)
-Self-reported problem behaviors (smoking, drinking, Marijuana).
-Self-report Rosenbergs self-esteem scale.
The study was replicated in a sample of middle school children (age 13).
The same results were found, including use of marijuana!
Conclusion
Delay of gratification can be measured in adolescence.
Individual differences in delay of gratification predict adjustment and self-esteem.
Willpower in the Brain:
The Story of Phineas Gage
Phineas Gage is a famous patient who survived severe damage to the brain.
His unique brain damage provided first insights into the neurological basis of will-
power.
The Consequences
Before the accident he had been their most capable and efficient foreman (high will-
power, long-term focus).
After the accident his behavior was erratic and he was unable to settle on any of his
plans (low will-power, short-term focus)
He was also grossly profane in his social interactions.
His friends said he was “No longer Gage.”
More recent research confirms that the pre-frontal cortex is important for long-term
planning and will-power.
UTM Research
Working memory tasks reveal individual differences in the functioning of the dorso-
lateral pre-frontal cortex.
Performance correlates with conscientiousness.
Conscientiousness predicts relationship commitment in dating couples.
Defense Mechanism:
The function of defense mechanisms is to keep threatening/unpleasant thoughts
and feelings outside awareness.
Measurement of defense mechanisms
-discrepancy between self-report and other
measures
-physiological measures
-behavioral measures
-peer-reports
People with high scores on a social desirability scale are assumed to work hard at
living up to a high moral standard (super-ego).
High scorers on a social desirability scale also tend to score high on agreeableness
and conscientiousness.
This is even true when personality is assessed with informant ratings.
Thus, high social desirability scores do not merely reflect social desirable responding
on a questionnaire.
Repressive Coping and Emotional Experiences
Participants were assigned to three groups (LA, HA, REP) based on Anxiety and
Social Desirability questionnaires.
Phrase Association Task
Participants had to come up with associations to neutral, aggressive, and sexual
sentences.
Any volunteers?
Repression and Stress
Participants were assigned to three groups: LA (N = 18), HA (N = 25), or REP (N = 22).
Participants came to the lab at 8am, 3pm, and 9pm for three separate weekdays,
where their cortisol levels were assessed.
Cortisol levels are a physiological indicator of stress.
Repression and Health
Stress and elevated cortisol levels suppress the immune system.
A suppressed immune system increases the risk for illnesses.
If repressors are chronically unaware of their physiological stress, it may have
negative health consequences.
Conclusion
Repressive coping is associated with a lack of awareness of negative emotions and
stress.
Lack of awareness of stress may lead to prolonged stress.
Prolonged stress can suppress the immune system and increase the risk for diseases.
Thus, repressive coping with stress may be a psychological risk factor for physical
health.
General Conclusion
Some impulses are natural and the problem is a repressive society.
-Sexual norms have changed over time.
There are costs and benefits to suppressing impulses.
There may be better ways to regulate undesirable impulses.
-Sports
-Video games
- Fantasies
Psychotherapy can help people with real trauma.
- Post-traumatic stress disorder
Week 9: conscious and unconscious motives
Wednesday, November 14, 2018
1:50 PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
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Conscious and Unconscious Motives
Impulses versus Willpower
Repressive Coping
Iclicker: Which Big Five dimension do you think is most strongly related to will-
power?
NeuroticismA.
ExtraversionB.
Openness to ExperienceC.
AgreeablenessD.
ConscientiousnessE.
Key Concept: Willpower, Volition, Impulse-Control
Everyday trait words related to will-power:
Strong-minded, headstrong, deliberate, controlled, powerful, strong, determined,
tenacious, resolute, unwavering, firm, untiring, persistent, relentless, unrelenting,
assertive, forceful, dedicated, fanatic, stubborn
Definition:
maintain focus on a conscious goal (intention)
shield it from distraction by impulses
overcome obstacles in the pursuit of the goal
What is the differences between unconscious and conscious influences of behavior?
Unconscious motives are influences by salient stimuli in the immediate environment
(short-term perspective).
Conscious influences require active retrieval of long-term goals from memory (long-
term perspective).
“Willpower is just another name for theidea of choosing according to long-term
outcomes rather than short-term ones.“ (Damasio, 1994)
The Delay of Gratification Paradigm
4-years old children learn to play a game
Shown marshmallows
If they wait for 20 minutes, they will get 2 marshmallows. If they can’t wait, they
can ring the bell, and get 1 marshmallow.
Does delay of gratification at age 4 predict life outcomes?
10-years after the original delay of gratification studies, parents were asked to
rate the personality of their adolescent children.
Children who delayed gratification longer were
-more academically competent
-more socially competent
-more verbally fluent, rational and attentive
-more planful
-better able to deal with frustration and stress
Conclusion
Will-power shows temporal stability
Will-power is related to adjustment and academic performance in school.
Method
Participants. 69 high school students (age 16).
34 problem students (guidance counselors’ evaluations). 35 students were non-
problem students.
Procedure.
Choice between $7 now and $10 in one week.
(half took $7 now)
Measures.
-Grades (scale 0-100)
-Self-reported problem behaviors (smoking, drinking, Marijuana).
-Self-report Rosenbergs self-esteem scale.
The study was replicated in a sample of middle school children (age 13).
The same results were found, including use of marijuana!
Conclusion
Delay of gratification can be measured in adolescence.
Individual differences in delay of gratification predict adjustment and self-esteem.
Willpower in the Brain:
The Story of Phineas Gage
Phineas Gage is a famous patient who survived severe damage to the brain.
His unique brain damage provided first insights into the neurological basis of will-
power.
The Consequences
Before the accident he had been their most capable and efficient foreman (high will-
power, long-term focus).
After the accident his behavior was erratic and he was unable to settle on any of his
plans (low will-power, short-term focus)
He was also grossly profane in his social interactions.
His friends said he was “No longer Gage.”
More recent research confirms that the pre-frontal cortex is important for long-term
planning and will-power.
UTM Research
Working memory tasks reveal individual differences in the functioning of the dorso-
lateral pre-frontal cortex.
Performance correlates with conscientiousness.
Conscientiousness predicts relationship commitment in dating couples.
Defense Mechanism:
The function of defense mechanisms is to keep threatening/unpleasant thoughts
and feelings outside awareness.
Measurement of defense mechanisms
-discrepancy between self-report and other
measures
-physiological measures
-behavioral measures
-peer-reports
People with high scores on a social desirability scale are assumed to work hard at
living up to a high moral standard (super-ego).
High scorers on a social desirability scale also tend to score high on agreeableness
and conscientiousness.
This is even true when personality is assessed with informant ratings.
Thus, high social desirability scores do not merely reflect social desirable responding
on a questionnaire.
Repressive Coping and Emotional Experiences
Participants were assigned to three groups (LA, HA, REP) based on Anxiety and
Social Desirability questionnaires.
Phrase Association Task
Participants had to come up with associations to neutral, aggressive, and sexual
sentences.
Any volunteers?
Repression and Stress
Participants were assigned to three groups: LA (N = 18), HA (N = 25), or REP (N = 22).
Participants came to the lab at 8am, 3pm, and 9pm for three separate weekdays,
where their cortisol levels were assessed.
Cortisol levels are a physiological indicator of stress.
Repression and Health
Stress and elevated cortisol levels suppress the immune system.
A suppressed immune system increases the risk for illnesses.
If repressors are chronically unaware of their physiological stress, it may have
negative health consequences.
Conclusion
Repressive coping is associated with a lack of awareness of negative emotions and
stress.
Lack of awareness of stress may lead to prolonged stress.
Prolonged stress can suppress the immune system and increase the risk for diseases.
Thus, repressive coping with stress may be a psychological risk factor for physical
health.
General Conclusion
Some impulses are natural and the problem is a repressive society.
-Sexual norms have changed over time.
There are costs and benefits to suppressing impulses.
There may be better ways to regulate undesirable impulses.
-Sports
-Video games
- Fantasies
Psychotherapy can help people with real trauma.
- Post-traumatic stress disorder
Week 9: conscious and unconscious motives
Wednesday, November 14, 2018 1:50 PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Conscious and Unconscious Motives
Impulses versus Willpower
Repressive Coping
Iclicker: Which Big Five dimension do you think is most strongly related to will-
power?
NeuroticismA.
ExtraversionB.
Openness to ExperienceC.
AgreeablenessD.
ConscientiousnessE.
Key Concept: Willpower, Volition, Impulse-Control
Everyday trait words related to will-power:
Strong-minded, headstrong, deliberate, controlled, powerful, strong, determined,
tenacious, resolute, unwavering, firm, untiring, persistent, relentless, unrelenting,
assertive, forceful, dedicated, fanatic, stubborn
Definition:
maintain focus on a conscious goal (intention)
shield it from distraction by impulses
overcome obstacles in the pursuit of the goal
What is the differences between unconscious and conscious influences of behavior?
Unconscious motives are influences by salient stimuli in the immediate environment
(short-term perspective).
Conscious influences require active retrieval of long-term goals from memory (long-
term perspective).
“Willpower is just another name for theidea of choosing according to long-term
outcomes rather than short-term ones.“ (Damasio, 1994)
The Delay of Gratification Paradigm
4-years old children learn to play a game
Shown marshmallows
If they wait for 20 minutes, they will get 2 marshmallows. If they can’t wait, they
can ring the bell, and get 1 marshmallow.
Does delay of gratification at age 4 predict life outcomes?
10-years after the original delay of gratification studies, parents were asked to
rate the personality of their adolescent children.
Children who delayed gratification longer were
-more academically competent
-more socially competent
-more verbally fluent, rational and attentive
-more planful
-better able to deal with frustration and stress
Conclusion
Will-power shows temporal stability
Will-power is related to adjustment and academic performance in school.
Method
Participants. 69 high school students (age 16).
34 problem students (guidance counselors’ evaluations). 35 students were non-
problem students.
Procedure.
Choice between $7 now and $10 in one week.
(half took $7 now)
Measures.
-Grades (scale 0-100)
-Self-reported problem behaviors (smoking, drinking, Marijuana).
-Self-report Rosenbergs self-esteem scale.
The study was replicated in a sample of middle school children (age 13).
The same results were found, including use of marijuana!
Conclusion
Delay of gratification can be measured in adolescence.
Individual differences in delay of gratification predict adjustment and self-esteem.
Willpower in the Brain:
The Story of Phineas Gage
Phineas Gage is a famous patient who survived severe damage to the brain.
His unique brain damage provided first insights into the neurological basis of will-
power.
The Consequences
Before the accident he had been their most capable and efficient foreman (high will-
power, long-term focus).
After the accident his behavior was erratic and he was unable to settle on any of his
plans (low will-power, short-term focus)
He was also grossly profane in his social interactions.
His friends said he was “No longer Gage.”
More recent research confirms that the pre-frontal cortex is important for long-term
planning and will-power.
UTM Research
Working memory tasks reveal individual differences in the functioning of the dorso-
lateral pre-frontal cortex.
Performance correlates with conscientiousness.
Conscientiousness predicts relationship commitment in dating couples.
Defense Mechanism:
The function of defense mechanisms is to keep threatening/unpleasant thoughts
and feelings outside awareness.
Measurement of defense mechanisms
-discrepancy between self-report and other
measures
-physiological measures
-behavioral measures
-peer-reports
People with high scores on a social desirability scale are assumed to work hard at
living up to a high moral standard (super-ego).
High scorers on a social desirability scale also tend to score high on agreeableness
and conscientiousness.
This is even true when personality is assessed with informant ratings.
Thus, high social desirability scores do not merely reflect social desirable responding
on a questionnaire.
Repressive Coping and Emotional Experiences
Participants were assigned to three groups (LA, HA, REP) based on Anxiety and
Social Desirability questionnaires.
Phrase Association Task
Participants had to come up with associations to neutral, aggressive, and sexual
sentences.
Any volunteers?
Repression and Stress
Participants were assigned to three groups: LA (N = 18), HA (N = 25), or REP (N = 22).
Participants came to the lab at 8am, 3pm, and 9pm for three separate weekdays,
where their cortisol levels were assessed.
Cortisol levels are a physiological indicator of stress.
Repression and Health
Stress and elevated cortisol levels suppress the immune system.
A suppressed immune system increases the risk for illnesses.
If repressors are chronically unaware of their physiological stress, it may have
negative health consequences.
Conclusion
Repressive coping is associated with a lack of awareness of negative emotions and
stress.
Lack of awareness of stress may lead to prolonged stress.
Prolonged stress can suppress the immune system and increase the risk for diseases.
Thus, repressive coping with stress may be a psychological risk factor for physical
health.
General Conclusion
Some impulses are natural and the problem is a repressive society.
-Sexual norms have changed over time.
There are costs and benefits to suppressing impulses.
There may be better ways to regulate undesirable impulses.
-Sports
-Video games
- Fantasies
Psychotherapy can help people with real trauma.
- Post-traumatic stress disorder
Week 9: conscious and unconscious motives
Wednesday, November 14, 2018 1:50 PM
Unlock document

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