PSY230H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence, Theory Of Multiple Intelligences, Factor Analysis

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21 Nov 2018
School
Department
Course
What is intelligence?
General intelligence (Spearman, 1904)
- performances on different intellectual task
are positively correlated (vocabulary, digit
memory, spatial ability, etc.)
- factor analysis of various tasks shows one
general factor (G-factor).
Multiple intelligence (Gardner, 1983)
- intelligence profiles (different rank order
on different tasks (linguistic, logical-
mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic,
musical, and personal intelligence)
Different Types of Intelligence
fluid intelligence (e.g., Raven Progressive Matrices, abstract tasks)
- crystallized intelligence (language, vocabulary, world knowledge)
Evidence for Environmental Effects:
Adoption Studies
Adoption from low SES families into middle-class families -> increased IQ by 12 points
(Lucurto, 1990).
IQ of adopted children more similar to biological parents than to adopted parents.
Effects of nature remain, effects of nurture become weaker as children grow up
(Harris).
Conclusion
American Psychological Association (APA) task force.
Heritability of IQ after late adolescence is about .75.
No effect of shared environment in adulthood.
For children heritability is lower (~45%)
For children shared environment has an effect (> 20%).
Does Breastfeeding increase IQ?
For most children (90% of the population), breast feeding was a predictor of higher IQ
(~ 7 points).
For these children, breast feeding was also a predictor of mothers IQ (~ 8 points).
After controlling for the effect of mothers IQ on childrens IQ, the effect of
breastfeeding is smaller (~ 4-5 IQ points).
New formulas include fatty acids that may simulate the effect of breast milk.
Do these effects last?
Based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY).
effect on IQ in adolescence is small (< 1 IQ point, after controlling for maternal IQ.
There is no significant difference in IQ between a breastfed and a non-breastfed
sibling (< 1 IQ point, not significant).
Further Evidence
- Flynn (1994) demonstrated that 18-year olds in 1982 scored 20 IQ-points higher (SD
= 15) than their fathers in 1952. [d > 1, big effect size]
Real world implication: Next time you disagree with your parents, you can tell them
that you are right because you are much smarter than they are.
Exception: The Flynn effect does not apply to professors and students. J
Conclusion
Both genes and environment matter.
genetic effects are stable (unless biological changes occur due to brain damage or
aging).
Environmental effects are more short lived.
Real World Implications
Intelligence is like physical fitness. You have to exercise your brain to maintain your
IQ.
Relation between Intelligence and Big Five
Fluid intelligence is largely unrelated to the Big Five.
Crystallized intelligence is moderately related to openness to experience (r= .37)
Sex Differences in IQ?
Flynn (1998) analyzed Israeli military data that included virtually all men and 80% to
85% of all women.
Israeli women scored about 0.8 points above men on a Verbal IQ test and about 1.4
points below men on a matrices test. The overall IQ difference was 0.3.
These are small effect sizes (SD = 15).
Why are there no sex difference in intelligence?
Intelligence helps survival and it is heritable.
Boys and girls inherit genes from mother and father. Additive genetic effects imply
that boys of intelligent mothers are more intelligent.
Prediction: Men and women should value intelligence in a mate.
Evidence. In a large cross-cultural study of mate preferences, both men and women
rated intelligent as more important in choosing a mate than either good looks or good
financial prospect.
Relevance of lack of sex differences in intelligence
Societies that prevent 50% of their smart brains to get educated have a large
disadvantage over societies that give 100% of their smart brains access to good
education and influential jobs.
Wealthy and happy nations are also nations with the smallest gender inequalities.
What would you prefer?
A. An intelligent female doctor/lawyer
B. A not so smart’ male doctor/lawyer
Self-Knowledge
How good are people in estimating their own and others intelligence?
- 100 participants were videotaped reading a short passage, made self-ratings of their
intelligence, and completed an IQ test. Participants partners also rated their
intelligence.
Conclusion
People are not very good at assessing their own intelligence.
Their partners are not more accurate.
Ratings of a brief video with sound are as good a measure of IQ as self-ratings or
ratings by acquaintances.
Personal Relevance
Both overestimation and underestimation of intelligence may lead to bad career
choices.
Intelligence and Happiness
Intelligence does not predict a happier life. The correlation between intelligence and
life-satisfaction is very small (r= .04; Lang & Heckhausen, 2001).
UTM students. Students self-rated happiness with
Students IQ rating r = .11
Mothers IQ rating r = .03
Fathers IQ ratings r = .01
Relevance
- You need intelligence to get into med-school or law school, but not to be happy.
General Conclusion
Intelligence has a strong genetic component.
Intelligence is very stable over time.
Intelligence is also influenced by environmental factors, but these influence are not
long lasting.
Intelligence predicts some important life-outcomes (education, income), but not
happiness.
People are not very good judges of their own or others intelligence.
Take an IQ test! I did and decided not to become a rocket scientist.
PART 2
Personality and Longevity
Does your personality influence your life-expectancy?
Longevity and a Healthy Life Style
How important is a healthy life-style for our longevity (i.e., how long we live?).
3457 Framingham Heart Study participants who were 30 to 49 years of age in 1948.
Measures
-Gender
-Smoking
-Body-Mass-Index (kg / m2)
[Example: BMI = 76 / 1.762 = 24.5]
- Mortality
Conclusion
Strong relation between predictor variables and mortality.
Non-smoking female participants with a healthy BMI had an 80% chance to be alive at
age 80.
Smoking male participants with an unhealthy BMI had a 20% chance to be alive at age
80.
Personality and Longevity
Lewis Terman initiated a longitudinal study of gifted children in the 1920s.
The participants in this study called themselves the termites.
Howard S. Friedman published numerous articles on predictors of longevity based on
this study.
The Terman Study
In 1921-22, Lewis Terman recruited over 1500 children (age 11) for a longitudinal
study (IQ > 135).
Parents rated childrens personality.
In 1940 (age 30) self-reports of personality.
In 1991, a Termite would have been 80 years old.
- leading causes of death were cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
- 58% were actually alive, 42% had died.
- High conscientiousness (top 25%): 63% alive
- Low conscientiousness (lowest 25%): 53% alive
Cheerfulness and Mortality
Cheerfulness was assessed by parent and teacher ratings in childhood.
Cheerfulness was measured with the items
- cheerful/optmistic
-“sense of humor
Cheerfulness was a negative predictor of longevity.
(cheerful children were going to die earlier)
Sexual Behavior and Longevity
[Sex and Death: Freuds favorite topics]
Measures. Self-report of sexual behavior.
- Indulgence in petting, kissing, and spooning in high school
- Attitude towards sex at high school
Other Findings
The authors also examined other potential predictors of longevity.
Longevity was not related to:
- frequency of marital intercourse
- amount of sexual pleasure
- sexual upbringing (sex education)
Positive Emotions and Longevity
Participants. 180 Catholic US American nuns.
Method. Handwritten one-page autobiographies at the age of 22 were coded for
individual differences in the use of positive and negative words.
General Conclusion
There is good evidence that personality predicts longevity.
The exact mechanism are still unclear.
It is likely that some of these effects are due to personality effects on life-style factors
that influence health.
Attachment Theory
Parents behavior determines childrens attachment style.
Sensitive and responsive parenting leads to secure attachment.
Childhood attachment styles have long-term consequences for social relationships
later in life.
Adult Attachment and Romantic Relationships
A brief self-report measure of adult attachment.
Relationship outcomes were assessed 8 months later.
Status. Currently in a romantic relationship.
[only for those in a relationship]
Length. Length of current romantic relationship.
Satisfaction. Satisfaction with romantic relationship.
Longitudinal Evidence
-First-born children from mothers living in poverty in 1975-1977.
- Infant attachment at 12 and 18 months with the stranger situation test.
- At age 20, measures of romantic relationship:
-Self-reported closeness
- Observer raters based on videotaped interactions.
Behavioural Genetics Studies:
Adult Attachment
- Several studies have found negligible estimates for shared environment on adult
attachment styles.
At the same time, these studies showed genetic effects on adult attachment styles.
A Twin Study of Marital Satisfaction
150 MZ and 176 DZ female twins
and their husbands!
Relationship Satisfaction scale of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale
Twin Study of Marital Satisfaction
Twin similarity in marital satisfaction:
MZ r= .32, DZ r= .15
Correlations between one twins own marital satisfaction and the OTHER twins
spouse (they are not married!).
MZ r= .15, DZ r= .04
Similarity between twins and their spouses (they ARE married) in marital satisfaction.
MZ r = .61, DZ r= .61
Conclusion: The current relationship with a spouse matters, the past relationship with
parents does not.
Implications/Relevance
Marital satisfaction is not just a reflection of the quality of a relationship. Getting a
divorce may not make you happier because dissatisfaction could be due to your own
personality/genes!
Marital satisfaction is influenced by a spouses personality: Choose your spouse
carefully!
Marital satisfaction is influenced by relationship quality. You can do things to improve
marital satisfaction!
Similarity in personality is NOT important for relationship quality.
Week 10
Wednesday, November 21, 2018
12:19 PM
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This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
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What is intelligence?
General intelligence (Spearman, 1904)
- performances on different intellectual task
are positively correlated (vocabulary, digit
memory, spatial ability, etc.)
- factor analysis of various tasks shows one
general factor (G-factor).
Multiple intelligence (Gardner, 1983)
- intelligence profiles (different rank order
on different tasks (linguistic, logical-
mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic,
musical, and personal intelligence)
Different Types of Intelligence
fluid intelligence (e.g., Raven Progressive Matrices, abstract tasks)
- crystallized intelligence (language, vocabulary, world knowledge)
Evidence for Environmental Effects:
Adoption Studies
Adoption from low SES families into middle-class families -> increased IQ by 12 points
(Lucurto, 1990).
IQ of adopted children more similar to biological parents than to adopted parents.
Effects of nature remain, effects of nurture become weaker as children grow up
(Harris).
Conclusion
American Psychological Association (APA) task force.
Heritability of IQ after late adolescence is about .75.
No effect of shared environment in adulthood.
For children heritability is lower (~45%)
For children shared environment has an effect (> 20%).
Does Breastfeeding increase IQ?
For most children (90% of the population), breast feeding was a predictor of higher IQ
(~ 7 points).
For these children, breast feeding was also a predictor of mothers IQ (~ 8 points).
After controlling for the effect of mothers IQ on childrens IQ, the effect of
breastfeeding is smaller (~ 4-5 IQ points).
New formulas include fatty acids that may simulate the effect of breast milk.
Do these effects last?
Based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY).
effect on IQ in adolescence is small (< 1 IQ point, after controlling for maternal IQ.
There is no significant difference in IQ between a breastfed and a non-breastfed
sibling (< 1 IQ point, not significant).
Further Evidence
- Flynn (1994) demonstrated that 18-year olds in 1982 scored 20 IQ-points higher (SD
= 15) than their fathers in 1952. [d > 1, big effect size]
Real world implication: Next time you disagree with your parents, you can tell them
that you are right because you are much smarter than they are.
Exception: The Flynn effect does not apply to professors and students. J
Conclusion
Both genes and environment matter.
genetic effects are stable (unless biological changes occur due to brain damage or
aging).
Environmental effects are more short lived.
Real World Implications
Intelligence is like physical fitness. You have to exercise your brain to maintain your
IQ.
Relation between Intelligence and Big Five
Fluid intelligence is largely unrelated to the Big Five.
Crystallized intelligence is moderately related to openness to experience (r= .37)
Sex Differences in IQ?
Flynn (1998) analyzed Israeli military data that included virtually all men and 80% to
85% of all women.
Israeli women scored about 0.8 points above men on a Verbal IQ test and about 1.4
points below men on a matrices test. The overall IQ difference was 0.3.
These are small effect sizes (SD = 15).
Why are there no sex difference in intelligence?
Intelligence helps survival and it is heritable.
Boys and girls inherit genes from mother and father. Additive genetic effects imply
that boys of intelligent mothers are more intelligent.
Prediction: Men and women should value intelligence in a mate.
Evidence. In a large cross-cultural study of mate preferences, both men and women
rated intelligent as more important in choosing a mate than either good looks or good
financial prospect.
Relevance of lack of sex differences in intelligence
Societies that prevent 50% of their smart brains to get educated have a large
disadvantage over societies that give 100% of their smart brains access to good
education and influential jobs.
Wealthy and happy nations are also nations with the smallest gender inequalities.
What would you prefer?
A. An intelligent female doctor/lawyer
B. A not so smart’ male doctor/lawyer
Self-Knowledge
How good are people in estimating their own and others intelligence?
- 100 participants were videotaped reading a short passage, made self-ratings of their
intelligence, and completed an IQ test. Participants partners also rated their
intelligence.
Conclusion
People are not very good at assessing their own intelligence.
Their partners are not more accurate.
Ratings of a brief video with sound are as good a measure of IQ as self-ratings or
ratings by acquaintances.
Personal Relevance
Both overestimation and underestimation of intelligence may lead to bad career
choices.
Intelligence and Happiness
Intelligence does not predict a happier life. The correlation between intelligence and
life-satisfaction is very small (r= .04; Lang & Heckhausen, 2001).
UTM students. Students self-rated happiness with
Students IQ rating r = .11
Mothers IQ rating r = .03
Fathers IQ ratings r = .01
Relevance
- You need intelligence to get into med-school or law school, but not to be happy.
General Conclusion
Intelligence has a strong genetic component.
Intelligence is very stable over time.
Intelligence is also influenced by environmental factors, but these influence are not
long lasting.
Intelligence predicts some important life-outcomes (education, income), but not
happiness.
People are not very good judges of their own or others intelligence.
Take an IQ test! I did and decided not to become a rocket scientist.
PART 2
Personality and Longevity
Does your personality influence your life-expectancy?
Longevity and a Healthy Life Style
How important is a healthy life-style for our longevity (i.e., how long we live?).
3457 Framingham Heart Study participants who were 30 to 49 years of age in 1948.
Measures
-Gender
-Smoking
-Body-Mass-Index (kg / m2)
[Example: BMI = 76 / 1.762 = 24.5]
- Mortality
Conclusion
Strong relation between predictor variables and mortality.
Non-smoking female participants with a healthy BMI had an 80% chance to be alive at
age 80.
Smoking male participants with an unhealthy BMI had a 20% chance to be alive at age
80.
Personality and Longevity
Lewis Terman initiated a longitudinal study of gifted children in the 1920s.
The participants in this study called themselves the termites.
Howard S. Friedman published numerous articles on predictors of longevity based on
this study.
The Terman Study
In 1921-22, Lewis Terman recruited over 1500 children (age 11) for a longitudinal
study (IQ > 135).
Parents rated childrens personality.
In 1940 (age 30) self-reports of personality.
In 1991, a Termite would have been 80 years old.
- leading causes of death were cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
- 58% were actually alive, 42% had died.
- High conscientiousness (top 25%): 63% alive
- Low conscientiousness (lowest 25%): 53% alive
Cheerfulness and Mortality
Cheerfulness was assessed by parent and teacher ratings in childhood.
Cheerfulness was measured with the items
- cheerful/optmistic
-“sense of humor
Cheerfulness was a negative predictor of longevity.
(cheerful children were going to die earlier)
Sexual Behavior and Longevity
[Sex and Death: Freuds favorite topics]
Measures. Self-report of sexual behavior.
- Indulgence in petting, kissing, and spooning in high school
- Attitude towards sex at high school
Other Findings
The authors also examined other potential predictors of longevity.
Longevity was not related to:
- frequency of marital intercourse
- amount of sexual pleasure
- sexual upbringing (sex education)
Positive Emotions and Longevity
Participants. 180 Catholic US American nuns.
Method. Handwritten one-page autobiographies at the age of 22 were coded for
individual differences in the use of positive and negative words.
General Conclusion
There is good evidence that personality predicts longevity.
The exact mechanism are still unclear.
It is likely that some of these effects are due to personality effects on life-style factors
that influence health.
Attachment Theory
Parents behavior determines childrens attachment style.
Sensitive and responsive parenting leads to secure attachment.
Childhood attachment styles have long-term consequences for social relationships
later in life.
Adult Attachment and Romantic Relationships
A brief self-report measure of adult attachment.
Relationship outcomes were assessed 8 months later.
Status. Currently in a romantic relationship.
[only for those in a relationship]
Length. Length of current romantic relationship.
Satisfaction. Satisfaction with romantic relationship.
Longitudinal Evidence
-First-born children from mothers living in poverty in 1975-1977.
- Infant attachment at 12 and 18 months with the stranger situation test.
- At age 20, measures of romantic relationship:
-Self-reported closeness
- Observer raters based on videotaped interactions.
Behavioural Genetics Studies:
Adult Attachment
- Several studies have found negligible estimates for shared environment on adult
attachment styles.
At the same time, these studies showed genetic effects on adult attachment styles.
A Twin Study of Marital Satisfaction
150 MZ and 176 DZ female twins
and their husbands!
Relationship Satisfaction scale of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale
Twin Study of Marital Satisfaction
Twin similarity in marital satisfaction:
MZ r= .32, DZ r= .15
Correlations between one twins own marital satisfaction and the OTHER twins
spouse (they are not married!).
MZ r= .15, DZ r= .04
Similarity between twins and their spouses (they ARE married) in marital satisfaction.
MZ r = .61, DZ r= .61
Conclusion: The current relationship with a spouse matters, the past relationship with
parents does not.
Implications/Relevance
Marital satisfaction is not just a reflection of the quality of a relationship. Getting a
divorce may not make you happier because dissatisfaction could be due to your own
personality/genes!
Marital satisfaction is influenced by a spouses personality: Choose your spouse
carefully!
Marital satisfaction is influenced by relationship quality. You can do things to improve
marital satisfaction!
Similarity in personality is NOT important for relationship quality.
Week 10
Wednesday, November 21, 2018 12:19 PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 14 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
What is intelligence?
General intelligence (Spearman, 1904)
- performances on different intellectual task
are positively correlated (vocabulary, digit
memory, spatial ability, etc.)
- factor analysis of various tasks shows one
general factor (G-factor).
Multiple intelligence (Gardner, 1983)
- intelligence profiles (different rank order
on different tasks (linguistic, logical-
mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic,
musical, and personal intelligence)
Different Types of Intelligence
fluid intelligence (e.g., Raven Progressive Matrices, abstract tasks)
- crystallized intelligence (language, vocabulary, world knowledge)
Evidence for Environmental Effects:
Adoption Studies
Adoption from low SES families into middle-class families -> increased IQ by 12 points
(Lucurto, 1990).
IQ of adopted children more similar to biological parents than to adopted parents.
Effects of nature remain, effects of nurture become weaker as children grow up
(Harris).
Conclusion
American Psychological Association (APA) task force.
Heritability of IQ after late adolescence is about .75.
No effect of shared environment in adulthood.
For children heritability is lower (~45%)
For children shared environment has an effect (> 20%).
Does Breastfeeding increase IQ?
For most children (90% of the population), breast feeding was a predictor of higher IQ
(~ 7 points).
For these children, breast feeding was also a predictor of mothers’ IQ (~ 8 points).
After controlling for the effect of mothers IQ on childrens IQ, the effect of
breastfeeding is smaller (~ 4-5 IQ points).
New formulas include fatty acids that may simulate the effect of breast milk.
Do these effects last?
Based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY).
effect on IQ in adolescence is small (< 1 IQ point, after controlling for maternal IQ.
There is no significant difference in IQ between a breastfed and a non-breastfed
sibling (< 1 IQ point, not significant).
Further Evidence
- Flynn (1994) demonstrated that 18-year olds in 1982 scored 20 IQ-points higher (SD
= 15) than their fathers in 1952. [d > 1, big effect size]
Real world implication: Next time you disagree with your parents, you can tell them
that you are right because you are much smarter than they are.
Exception: The Flynn effect does not apply to professors and students. J
Conclusion
Both genes and environment matter.
genetic effects are stable (unless biological changes occur due to brain damage or
aging).
Environmental effects are more short lived.
Real World Implications
Intelligence is like physical fitness. You have to exercise your brain to maintain your
IQ.
Relation between Intelligence and Big Five
Fluid intelligence is largely unrelated to the Big Five.
Crystallized intelligence is moderately related to openness to experience (r= .37)
Sex Differences in IQ?
Flynn (1998) analyzed Israeli military data that included virtually all men and 80% to
85% of all women.
Israeli women scored about 0.8 points above men on a Verbal IQ test and about 1.4
points below men on a matrices test. The overall IQ difference was 0.3.
These are small effect sizes (SD = 15).
Why are there no sex difference in intelligence?
Intelligence helps survival and it is heritable.
Boys and girls inherit genes from mother and father. Additive genetic effects imply
that boys of intelligent mothers are more intelligent.
Prediction: Men and women should value intelligence in a mate.
Evidence. In a large cross-cultural study of mate preferences, both men and women
rated intelligent as more important in choosing a mate than either good looks or good
financial prospect.
Relevance of lack of sex differences in intelligence
Societies that prevent 50% of their smart brains to get educated have a large
disadvantage over societies that give 100% of their smart brains access to good
education and influential jobs.
Wealthy and happy nations are also nations with the smallest gender inequalities.
What would you prefer?
A. An intelligent female doctor/lawyer
B. A not so smart’ male doctor/lawyer
Self-Knowledge
How good are people in estimating their own and others intelligence?
- 100 participants were videotaped reading a short passage, made self-ratings of their
intelligence, and completed an IQ test. Participants partners also rated their
intelligence.
Conclusion
People are not very good at assessing their own intelligence.
Their partners are not more accurate.
Ratings of a brief video with sound are as good a measure of IQ as self-ratings or
ratings by acquaintances.
Personal Relevance
Both overestimation and underestimation of intelligence may lead to bad career
choices.
Intelligence and Happiness
Intelligence does not predict a happier life. The correlation between intelligence and
life-satisfaction is very small (r= .04; Lang & Heckhausen, 2001).
UTM students. Students self-rated happiness with
Students IQ rating r = .11
Mothers IQ rating r = .03
Fathers IQ ratings r = .01
Relevance
- You need intelligence to get into med-school or law school, but not to be happy.
General Conclusion
Intelligence has a strong genetic component.
Intelligence is very stable over time.
Intelligence is also influenced by environmental factors, but these influence are not
long lasting.
Intelligence predicts some important life-outcomes (education, income), but not
happiness.
People are not very good judges of their own or others intelligence.
Take an IQ test! I did and decided not to become a rocket scientist.
PART 2
Personality and Longevity
Does your personality influence your life-expectancy?
Longevity and a Healthy Life Style
How important is a healthy life-style for our longevity (i.e., how long we live?).
3457 Framingham Heart Study participants who were 30 to 49 years of age in 1948.
Measures
-Gender
-Smoking
-Body-Mass-Index (kg / m2)
[Example: BMI = 76 / 1.762 = 24.5]
- Mortality
Conclusion
Strong relation between predictor variables and mortality.
Non-smoking female participants with a healthy BMI had an 80% chance to be alive at
age 80.
Smoking male participants with an unhealthy BMI had a 20% chance to be alive at age
80.
Personality and Longevity
Lewis Terman initiated a longitudinal study of gifted children in the 1920s.
The participants in this study called themselves the termites.
Howard S. Friedman published numerous articles on predictors of longevity based on
this study.
The Terman Study
In 1921-22, Lewis Terman recruited over 1500 children (age 11) for a longitudinal
study (IQ > 135).
Parents rated childrens personality.
In 1940 (age 30) self-reports of personality.
In 1991, a Termite would have been 80 years old.
- leading causes of death were cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
- 58% were actually alive, 42% had died.
- High conscientiousness (top 25%): 63% alive
- Low conscientiousness (lowest 25%): 53% alive
Cheerfulness and Mortality
Cheerfulness was assessed by parent and teacher ratings in childhood.
Cheerfulness was measured with the items
- cheerful/optmistic
-“sense of humor
Cheerfulness was a negative predictor of longevity.
(cheerful children were going to die earlier)
Sexual Behavior and Longevity
[Sex and Death: Freuds favorite topics]
Measures. Self-report of sexual behavior.
- Indulgence in petting, kissing, and spooning in high school
- Attitude towards sex at high school
Other Findings
The authors also examined other potential predictors of longevity.
Longevity was not related to:
- frequency of marital intercourse
- amount of sexual pleasure
- sexual upbringing (sex education)
Positive Emotions and Longevity
Participants. 180 Catholic US American nuns.
Method. Handwritten one-page autobiographies at the age of 22 were coded for
individual differences in the use of positive and negative words.
General Conclusion
There is good evidence that personality predicts longevity.
The exact mechanism are still unclear.
It is likely that some of these effects are due to personality effects on life-style factors
that influence health.
Attachment Theory
Parents behavior determines childrens attachment style.
Sensitive and responsive parenting leads to secure attachment.
Childhood attachment styles have long-term consequences for social relationships
later in life.
Adult Attachment and Romantic Relationships
A brief self-report measure of adult attachment.
Relationship outcomes were assessed 8 months later.
Status. Currently in a romantic relationship.
[only for those in a relationship]
Length. Length of current romantic relationship.
Satisfaction. Satisfaction with romantic relationship.
Longitudinal Evidence
-First-born children from mothers living in poverty in 1975-1977.
- Infant attachment at 12 and 18 months with the stranger situation test.
- At age 20, measures of romantic relationship:
-Self-reported closeness
- Observer raters based on videotaped interactions.
Behavioural Genetics Studies:
Adult Attachment
- Several studies have found negligible estimates for shared environment on adult
attachment styles.
At the same time, these studies showed genetic effects on adult attachment styles.
A Twin Study of Marital Satisfaction
150 MZ and 176 DZ female twins
and their husbands!
Relationship Satisfaction scale of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale
Twin Study of Marital Satisfaction
Twin similarity in marital satisfaction:
MZ r= .32, DZ r= .15
Correlations between one twins own marital satisfaction and the OTHER twins
spouse (they are not married!).
MZ r= .15, DZ r= .04
Similarity between twins and their spouses (they ARE married) in marital satisfaction.
MZ r = .61, DZ r= .61
Conclusion: The current relationship with a spouse matters, the past relationship with
parents does not.
Implications/Relevance
Marital satisfaction is not just a reflection of the quality of a relationship. Getting a
divorce may not make you happier because dissatisfaction could be due to your own
personality/genes!
Marital satisfaction is influenced by a spouses personality: Choose your spouse
carefully!
Marital satisfaction is influenced by relationship quality. You can do things to improve
marital satisfaction!
Similarity in personality is NOT important for relationship quality.
Week 10
Wednesday, November 21, 2018 12:19 PM
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