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Lecture 18

PSY230H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Sound Film, Standard Deviation, American Psychological Association


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY230H5
Professor
Ulrich Schimmack
Lecture
18

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What is intelligence?
General intelligence (Spearman, 1904)
oPerformances on different intellectual task are positively correlated
(vocabulary, digit memory, spatial ability, etc.)
oFactor analysis of various tasks shows one general factor (G-factor).
Multiple intelligence (Gardner, 1983)
oIntelligence profiles (different rank order on different tasks (linguistic,
logical- mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, and personal
intelligence)
Definition and Measurement of Intelligence
What is intelligence?
oA simple answer is that intelligence is what intelligence tests measure.
oMay be Intelligent people learn faster , process info faster etc.
oDifferent Types of Intelligence
oFluid intelligence measures rely on rely on novel tasks (e.g., finding
a system in a set of figures).
(e.g., Raven Progressive Matrices, abstract tasks)
Involve thinking logically
oCrystallized intelligence measure rely on cognitive skills and
knowledge that people have acquired (e.g., vocabulary).
(language, vocabulary, world knowledge)
Culture and environmental and schooling and parental
influences have a strong influence on crystallized intelligence
It make it, difficult to compare individuals with different
learning histories.

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Spearman found positive correlations among various tasks, and factor analysis
suggested there is a single disposition produced these correlations.
oHe called this factor the g-factor.
oG stands for general intelligence.
oPerformance on different tasks is influenced by dispositions that are specific to
some tasks.
Gardner’s model of intelligence:
oEmphasizes the importance of multiple intelligences.
oSpearman’s g-factor is real and influences performance in a variety of tasks.
oHowever, individuals’ intelligence also takes the variation in performance on
different tasks into account.
Measurement of General Intelligence
oGeneral intelligence is typically measured in IQ scores.
oIQ scores are essentially standardized scores (z-scores).
oIQ scores have an approximately normal distribution.
oIQ scores use age-appropriate norms.
oFluid intelligence on cognitive tasks seems to increase during childhood and early
adulthood until age 25 and then starts to decline after
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Determinants of Intelligence
Genes versus Environment
oNumerous twin studies have examined the heritability of IQ.
oComparison on twins that were reared together and twins that were reared apart.
The results :
oThe correlations between MZ twins are more than twice as large as those between
DZ twins.
oOnly genetics effect and no env effects
oThis suggests both additive and non-additive genetic effects and no effect of
shared environment.
oThe lack of shared environment effects supported by the fact that correlations
for twins reared together are not higher than those for twins reared apart.
oAbsence of shared environment effects suggests:
o That 75% variance due to genetic factors
o 25% variance due to non-shared environment effects. This estimate is
o.This estimate is very high when compared to Big Five
Evidence for Environmental Effects: Adoption Studies
Adoption from low SES families into middle-class families -> increased IQ by 12
points (Lucurto, 1990).
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