PSY230H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Extraversion And Introversion, Acculturation, Nomothetic

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28 Aug 2016
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Lecture 8
Oct, 28, 2015
Environmental influences on personality: Cross Cultural differences Historic Changes
Whether different lifestyles affect their personality
Culture
We need variability to see whether cross-cultural effects personality
Cultures/ Nations
Nomothetic approach- accept the characteristics of a culture and look at its effect on
personality
How can we measure culture?
Individualism (both GDP and literacy rates are related to individualism
GDP- how much a country is a market economy, a reflection of wealth
Individualistic cultures
Japan was one of the first collectivistic country that was being compared to the U.S
Correlations of individualism with other characteristics of Nations
Wealth is highly correlated individualism (because as wealth increases, changes in
lifestyle occurs and people are better education thus there is a change in views
In individualism there is very low correlation with corruption, because individualistic
countries are based on laws
Quality of life is better, more products are imported and along with that the views of the
country that you imported from also comes into the country
What explains national differences in personality?
The more individualistic the more openness
Neuroticism is not correlated to individualistic
Extraversion is the strongest correlation to individualism
Agreeableness and conscientious are a somewhat low correlation
Explanation of national differences in extraversion/ openness
Culture influences personality?
oIn collectivist- the network is very structured and based on roles
oIn individualist society – social relationships are more fluid and changing over
time, which means that they have to rely on extraversion to talk to strangers
Disease- prevalence hypothesis
oIn other cultures talking to other would create a risk for dangerous diseases but in
individualistic areas health is overall better so they can talk to strangers without
risk of disease
Acculturation
Studying people that were born in one culture who have moved to another culture
Does Acculturation change personality?
The longer people have been in Canada the more they should be extraverted
As people leave their current countries, the more they become extraverted
Openness also increased as they went to an individualistic country
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Change in Personality or Personality Ratings?
To reduce the self-reporting bias and asked them who is more extraverted their Canadian
or non-Canadian friend
Also shows this is not a genetic variance since all of them were Chinese
Active Class Participation
Looked at the ethnicity of people who raised their hand
In Vancouver the population is 50% Europeans and 50% east Asian (so accounts for
minorities)
It is consistent with the differences in extraversion
It helps to get rid of self-report bias by seeing whether behavioural differences are real or
is personality is just a perception
The results show there is a behavioural differences between people that extraverts or not
Cultural differences versus cultural stereotypes effect sizes
Most of the variance comes within a culture
There is no cultural pressure that forces some people to be a certain personality, in the
general population not everyone follows the cultural norms
Own research
They would rate themselves and their friends positively (more extraverted, open, etc.)
In North America there is a strong norm to be positive
When it came to predict your future behaviours Europeans and Koreans are able to see
their abilities the same way
Europeans tend to report positively but they are able realistically view their abilities when
needed as well
Historic trends: Do cultural changes change personality?
Extraversions increase for both men and women every generation
This is because over time society has become more individualistic
Self-reported Social Desirable Behaviours
During the times of revolutions people were not behaving socially acceptable
Nowadays people are behaving more social appropriate
Shows that cultural factors do affect personality
Values and Motives
They are maintained and somewhat stable
We behave in ways that are in accordance with our values
Values vary across people
Value Structure
The are 10 universal values that are present in all culturs
Values that are compatible the go towards the same goa (achievement and power)
But some values are on opposite sides because they have contradicting views (universal
and power)
Certain values can have certain dimensions (openness to change, etc.)
Values and the big five
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