PSY240H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Control Theory, Dsm-5, Behaviorism

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14 Oct 2016
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9/14/2016 5:12:00 PM
Almost every break down is caused by environmental factors overcoming a
persons---
Biological factors (genes, disordered biochemistry, brain anomalies)
biological trigger (onset of a disease, exposure to toxins, etc.)
Social factor (maladaptive upbringing, chronic stress, etc.) social
trigger (traumatic event, major loss, etc.)
Psychological factor (unconscious conflicts, poor skills, maladaptive
cognitions, etc. )
Modern Perspective Biological Accounts
o Classification Systems using objective criteria and definitions
gave credence to biological factors as a cause of abnormality
o The connection of syphilis to general paresis
o Emil Kraplein
Classifying symptoms into discrete disorders
Biological Approaches
o Structural theories
Disorder as a result of damage to the structural integrity of
the brain (e.g., brain trauma as a result of a car accident )
o Biochemical Theories
The neurotransmitters (chemicals) that impact the
cognition functions
Problems or imbalances with neurotransmitters (the brains
chemical messengers) or of the endocrine (hormonal)
system
o Genetic Theories
A certain genes within a person that will make them
manifest differently when compared to another person
Some genes can get triggered by a certain event or
situation
Sometimes the malformation or transmission of a specific
gene or genes but most often via polygenic transmission
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Pros and Cons of Biological Theories of Abnormality
o Pros:
Rapidly increasing understanding and in turn ability to
more successfully treat disorders
Has done much to remove the stigma and blame
associated with psychological disorders
o Cons:
Biological theories tend to be reductionist and tempt us to
disregard important environmental and social factors.
Biology still doesn’t tell the entire story
Psychological Theories of Abnormality
o Psychodynamic theories (Sigmund Freud)- unconscious
conflicts between primitive desires and constraints on those
desires give rise to mental illness
Emphasizes the unconscious processes
Psychoanalysis: 1) a theory of personality and
psychopathology. 2) method for investigating the mind. 3)
a form of treatment for psychopathology
The ego: realistic
The superego: the perfect ideal self
The id
Newer Psychodynamic Theories
Newer theories emphasized the ego and allowed for
more consideration of the environment and one’s
relationship
Object relations theory : early in life we create
representations of ourselves and others and carry
these with us throughout adulthood
Treatment:
P
Criticism:
Written from male perspective
No proper evidence
Too based on childhood experiences
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Document Summary

Almost every break down is caused by environmental factors overcoming a persons--- Biological factors (genes, disordered biochemistry, brain anomalies) . Social biological trigger (onset of a disease, exposure to toxins, etc. ) trigger (traumatic event, major loss, etc. ) cognitions, etc. ) Modern perspective biological accounts: classification systems using objective criteria and definitions gave credence to biological factors as a cause of abnormality, the connection of syphilis to general paresis, emil kraplein. Disorder as a result of damage to the structural integrity of the brain (e. g. , brain trauma as a result of a car accident : biochemical theories. The neurotransmitters (chemicals) that impact the cognition functions. Problems or imbalances with neurotransmitters (the brains chemical messengers) or of the endocrine (hormonal) system: genetic theories. A certain genes within a person that will make them manifest differently when compared to another person. Some genes can get triggered by a certain event or situation.

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