PSY240H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Bipolar Disorder, American Psychiatric Association, Emil Kraepelin

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14 Jan 2017
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PSY240 Abnormal Psychology
Lecture 4 February 1, 2016
Do you have a psychological problem?
- First: assessment
- Second: diagnosis
Diagnosis
- Benefit
o Treatment
- Harm
o The label can be stigmatizing
The label stays with you forever, it doesn’t go away
Somebody with schizophrenia is labeled schizophrenic which tends to
stick with them even when they’re not exhibiting symptoms
Depressed, schizophrenic, anxious
We don’t label people who’ve had the flu as influenzic
o Putting a label on someone is the most contentious issue in this field because
someone is telling you that this is what you are and now it sticks with you
DSM (5) system used to diagnose disorders in North America and England, derived by the
American Psychiatric Association
- The specificity of DSM is both a benefit and a harm
- Not everyone in the world uses DSM, some use ICD (International Classification of
Diseases now version 10)
- When doctor diagnoses you, they report to government and is done through ICD-10
(Canada and US)
- DSM and ICD not compatible with each other
- DSM uses very little statistics (validity is not good)
First person to develop a classification system
- Emil Kraepelin, German
What makes for a good diagnostic system?
1. Categories are clearly defined (specific/exact)
a. DSM does a good job of this
b. Problem is that every occurrence of a disorder does not look the same
c. Another problem is that symptoms for one disorder can also be symptoms of
another disorder too (sad emotions in depression as well as in manic depressive
disorder both different disorders)
2. Categories exist
a. Schizophrenia actually exists (set of symptoms that go together that show this
person has schizophrenia) hallmark features: delusions and hallucinations
3. System must be reliable
a. Can’t change the diagnosis
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Document Summary

Harm: the label can be stigmatizing. The label stays with you forever, it doesn"t go away. Somebody with schizophrenia is labeled schizophrenic which tends to stick with them even when they"re not exhibiting symptoms. Dsm (5) system used to diagnose disorders in north america and england, derived by the. The specificity of dsm is both a benefit and a harm. Not everyone in the world uses dsm, some use icd (international classification of. When doctor diagnoses you, they report to government and is done through icd-10 (canada and us) Dsm and icd not compatible with each other. Dsm uses very little statistics (validity is not good) Yes: dsm not reliable or valid but it is useful. Based on consensus (mental health exports decided by consensus) Factor analysis large group of data that looks at what things occur together (used to describe variability among observers), time consuming and expensive.

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