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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 For those of you who missed class, these notes have all the lecture slides and my own notes taken integrated together in one neat word document. Great for last minute studying!

Course Code
Ayesha Khan

of 9
Chapter 2: Historical and Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behaviour
Historical Views of Abnormal Behaviour
Ancient Treatment
Stone Age: trephining
oChipping away one area of skull until a hole was made to release spirits inside
causing the behavioural.
*Edwin Smith papyrus
o16th Century B.C.E.
oTreatment of diseases & behavioural disorders
Surgical operation particular to the brain
oBrain is described
Writings about the brain associating w/ some form of mental
*Ebers Papyrus
oInternal medicine
Potions help to alleviate any kind of abnormal behaviour.
Demonology, Gods, and Magic
Chinese, Egyptian, Hebrew & Greek writings
“Possession” based on symptoms
Evil Vs. Good spirits
Bible: “The Lord shall smite thee with madness”
Ppl need to understand human physiology in order to understand abnormal
Abnormal behav is characterized by w/e society the individual lives in
Early Medical Concepts
Hippocrates (460 - 377 B.C.E.)
Proposing that mental disorders had natural causes
oDenied the demon/spirit hypothesis
oBelieved that the brain was the central organ for intellectual activity
oAbnormal behaviour is a function of brain pathology
oInjury to the head/brain could cause sensory/motor disturbance.
Categorizing disorders (form of classifying):
oMania- dramatic excitability
oMelancholia – excessive sadness
oPhrenitis- inflamation of mind/brain/body
Associating dreams and personality
oThought that the differences in ppl are caused by their personality
Early Philosophical Concepts
Plato (429 - 347 B.C.E.)
Viewed psychological phenomena as responses to the whole organism
Emphasized individual differences & sociocultural influences
Chapter 2: Historical and Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behaviour
oThe Republic = figuring out differences in mental capabilities (not everyone is
the same)
oSociocultural influences: individual reacting to internal thoughts/societal
Discussed hospital care
oBehaviours could be treated through therapy, or investigating internal
Mental internal states (not a demonic spirit possessing the body)
Aristotle (384 - 322 B.C.E.)
If you could get the person to think the right way, help to elimintate the mental
View of “consciousness” = you could “think” your way to better health (cognitive
Later Greek and Roman Thought
oTemples dedicated to the god of Saturn
oMental patients could receive therapy, activities, parties, nutrition, etc
oNot ALL patients could go to sanatorias (rich ones, accepted ones, etc)
oDiet, massage, hydrotherapy
Galen (130 - 200 C.E.)
oScientific approach
oCauses for mental disorders
oDerived the symptoms/causes of certain behaviours (cataloguing)
Ex. Head injuries, alcohol, fear, adolescence, menstrual changes etc.
The Middle Ages
The first “mental” hospital (792 C.E.)
oPatients not treated as criminals
Islamic medicine
oTried to characterize/cluster mental disorders
oAvicenna (c. 980-1037)
oHysteria, epilepsy, manic reactions
Europe (c. 500 - 15000
oSupernatural explanations (still stubborn)
oMass madness: Group shows abnormal behavior.
oTarantism: Uncontrollable impulse to dance. “Tarantella”
oIycanthropy: Condition which a group thought they were possessed by spirits
of wolves
Toward Humanitarian Approaches
The Renaissance
oResurgence of scientific questioning in Europe
oParacelsus (1490 - 1541)
First to criticize the theories of possession (after seeing group reactions)
oJohann Weyer (15-1588)
Disturbed that ppl were treated badly, being burned for witchcraft, etc
Chapter 2: Historical and Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behaviour
Believed ppl were sick and there was a natural explanation for what was
The sixteenth century
oEarly asylums and shrines
Asylums=place of refuge of mentally ill regardless if they were rich/poor
Constructed in areas segregation from society
Not run by ppl who were trained
Replaced prisons that mentally ill ppl were placed in
Humanitarian Reform
Philippe Pinel (1745 - 1826)
osuccessfully experimented with treating mental patients with KINDNESS
Willian Tuke (1732 - 1822)
oThe Quaker retreat
Pleasant country house based Quaker beliefs, all ppl should be treated
with kindness
Benjamin Rush (1745 - 1813)
oMoral management
Focuses on the individual in a social context. Asks what he/she wants to
do in life.
oMental hygiene movement
Need to make the individual physically stronger to help parts of body
such as the brain. Ex. Runner’s high.
Dorothy Dix (1802 - 1887)
oInhumane treatment of the mentally ill
oEducated the ppl and gov’t to try and bring a reform. Public awareness,
generate funding and help ppl see what the disorder really is.
Nineteenth-Century Views of Mental Disorders
Medical professionals
oAlienists: treated those who have mental disorders.
oControl of the asylums
oEmotional problems: depletion of bodily energy
o“Shattered nerves” mental deterioration
o“Neurasthenia” lack of energy (due to the lifestyle the individual had)
oTreatment by medicine
Mental Health in the Early 20 th
Clifford Beers (1876 - 1943)
A Mind That Found Itself
oDescribed his own mental collapse/deterioration
Made other ppl talk about their experiences campaign starter.
oImportant period of change for mental health
Mary Jane Ward (1905 - 1981)
oThe Snake Pit
oNeed to have community based places for mental ppl.