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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 For those of you who missed class, these notes have all the lecture slides and my own notes taken integrated together in one neat word document. Great for last minute studying!


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H5
Professor
Ayesha Khan
Lecture
9

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PSY240 Lecture 9 and 10
Chapter 10: Health Problems and Behaviour
Behavioural Medicine Vs. Health Psychology
Behavioural medicine
How psychological factors (behaviour) is associated w/ what’s happening physiologically.
Proving that psychological thoughts negatively affect health.
How do you stick to the systems the therapist gives to you?
Behavioural Medical Approach
Psychological factors that cause individual to get sick
How are negative effects of stress reduced/buffered by personal resources?
Biological mechanisms that are altered due to stress
Health choices
What determines compliance?
Health education and behaviour modification
Psychophysiological Disorders
Psychophysiological disorders
Formerly referred to as psychosomatic disorders
Psychosomatic: your psychology is affecting your body.
Disorders in which psychological factors are thought to play a role
Social stressors can lead to cardiovascular disease (edipose deposit)
Gastric ulcers
Bacterium
1 in 5 people who have the bacteria develop ulcers
Ulcers can develop without bacteria
Combination of both physiology (bacteria) and psychology (stressors) Both affect each other.
DSM-IV-TR
Mental Disorders Due to A General Medical Condition
Axis I (maladaptive behaviour the individual participates in)
Psychological Factors Affecting a General Medical Condition
John: high blood pressure + cardiovascular disease
Axis I: maladaptive eating pattern
Axis III: medical problem
Psychological Factors in Health & Disease
Stress may negatively affect allergies, disease, and long-term health
Severity of disease can fluctuate
Health and disease is connnected to psychological factors
Stress = increased production of cortisol
High levels of cortisol
Help the body sustain prolonged activity/mobilizes you!
Decrease immune system activity
Higher in the morning, then decrease throughout the day, low at night. (circadian rhythm)
In depressed people, cortisol functioning is not normal

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PSY240 Lecture 9 and 10
Chapter 10: Health Problems and Behaviour
If cortisol is disrupted (not normal pattern), then there is
dysfunction in HPA axis.
produces CRH pituitary ACTH adrenal
cortex (outer area) cortisol
Common theme: how is your brain affecting your
physiology? accumulate evidence for this!
Biological Costs of Stress
Allostatic Load (McEwann, 1996)
The level of stress (load)/biological cost
Stress & Immunity
Stressful circumstances » decreased immunity » diminished immune reactivity » more susceptibility to infections
When allostatic load is TOO high = biological cost is too much
Immune System:
B-cells= get matured in bone marrow, synonomous w/ Ab
T-cells= get matured in thymus, synonymous w/ cytokines
1. Macrophage engulfs Ag, and recruits the help of cytokines (ex. Interleukins. Chemical msngers that tell the
cell that something isn’t right).
2. T cells respond to Ag by creating a memory.
3. B-cells get activated by division (increasing number of B-cells that neutralize Ag) which then produces Ab.
4. Takes a couple of days for Ab production.
Leukocytes (B-cells and T-cells) respond to antigens such as viruses and bacteria
Bacteria (antigen) » Macrophage » Interleukins (cytokines) » T-cells
Bacteria (antigen) » B-cells » division of B-cells » Ab
Psychological Factors in Health & Disease
Cytokines =chemical msngers that allow the brain and the immune system to communicate with each other
Challenge the immune system by causing an inflammatory response
Inflammatory response: healing that is taking place. Body is trying to fix itself.
Dampen the response that the immune system makes when it is challenged
Excessively active healthy immune system = not good. Balanced immune system is the best
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PSY240 Lecture 9 and 10
Chapter 10: Health Problems and Behaviour
B-cells have memory component (primarily) to produce Ab.
T cells have cytokine component
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Exposure to virus (human immunodeficiency virus, HIV) leads to AIDS.
HIV positive = have the virus, but not necessarily showing symptoms.
Predictive factors for faster development
Higher levels of cortisol, denial as means of coping, dissatisfaction w/ available social support
Immunosupression
Psychoneuroimmunology
Psychoneuroimmunology is concerned with the interactions among
The nervous system
The immune system
Behaviour
Diminished immune system
Sleep deprivation
Marathon running
Spaceflight
Caregiver for special needs individuals
Death of a spouse
Exams
Natural killer cells
Tumour surveillance
Control of viral infection
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