Lecture 11/12 For those of you who missed class, these notes have all the lecture slides and my own notes taken integrated together in one neat word document. Great for last minute studying!

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16 Oct 2011

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PSY240 Lecture 12.
Chapter 16: Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence
Maladaptive Behaviour in Different Life Periods
Developmental psychopathology
Origins/course of individual maladaptation in the context of normal growth processes
Important to investigate behaviour in reference to “others”
To check if a behaviour is maladaptive have to examine the age of subject
Temper tantrum at 2 years of age is reasonable but not at 7 or 8
Younger children- NS is not fully developed: can’t get full grasp of reality
Young children are especially vulnerable to psychological problems because
Don’t have as complex/realistic view of themselves and their world as they will have later
They have less self-understanding, anxiety, rage, depression, etc.
Not yet developed stable sense of identity, understanding expectations, resources to deal w/ problems
Children used to be viewed as miniature adults
Give them smaller doses of meds than adults (WTF??)
From the original DSM, two basic behavioural disturbances in children
In 2nd half of the 20th century, diagnostic classification system focused on special problems of children
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Difficulties that interfere with effective task-oriented behaviours
Excessive (or exaggerated) motor activity
Difficulties in sustaining attention (distracted by other stimuli)
Difficulty in academics (lower IQ)
Social disturbances adjustment issues
ADHD = understimulation of the nervous system So drugs stimulate
This increases dopamine activity (Receptors that respond to dopamine are off)
**** Kids make up for underactivity of NS through hyperactivity of behaviour (e.g. kids running around).
Medications (such as amphetamines)
In Canada, prescriptions for Ritalin increased 600% between 1985 and 2002
Strattera (atomoxetine) is a non-stimulant drug; however, Health Canada has warned it may cause
emotional or behavioral change including increased risk for self-harm.
Behaviour therapy (particularly cognitive-behavioural methods)
CBT is hard to do w/ children
Gold standard treatment is a combination of psychological and pharmacological treatments
Research suggests that some children with ADHD go on to have other psychological problems later in life
Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
Recurrent DELINQUENT/ANTISOCIAL negativistic, hostile behaviour to authority, persists 6+ months
Occurs in younger children, if not managed these symptoms lead to conduct disorder
Conduct disorder
A persistent, repetitive violation of rules and a disregard for the rights of others
Older children
Possible Causes:
Biological factors (If parents have these disorders, likely children will have it)
Personal pathology
Family patterns (low socioeconomic status, abnormal family functioning)
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