Lecture 11/12 For those of you who missed class, these notes have all the lecture slides and my own notes taken integrated together in one neat word document. Great for last minute studying!
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PSY240 Lecture 12.
Chapter 16: Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence
Maladaptive Behaviour in Different Life Periods
• Developmental psychopathology
– Origins/course of individual maladaptation in the context of normal growth processes
– Important to investigate behaviour in reference to “others”
• To check if a behaviour is maladaptive – have to examine the age of subject
– Temper tantrum at 2 years of age is reasonable but not at 7 or 8
– Younger children- NS is not fully developed: can’t get full grasp of reality
• Young children are especially vulnerable to psychological problems because
– Don’t have as complex/realistic view of themselves and their world as they will have later
– They have less self-understanding, anxiety, rage, depression, etc.
– Not yet developed stable sense of identity, understanding expectations, resources to deal w/ problems
• Children used to be viewed as miniature adults
– Give them smaller doses of meds than adults (WTF??)
– From the original DSM, two basic behavioural disturbances in children
– In 2nd half of the 20th century, diagnostic classification system focused on special problems of children
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
• Difficulties that interfere with effective task-oriented behaviours
• Excessive (or exaggerated) motor activity
• Difficulties in sustaining attention (distracted by other stimuli)
• Difficulty in academics (lower IQ)
• Social disturbances adjustment issues
• ADHD = understimulation of the nervous system So drugs stimulate
– This increases dopamine activity (Receptors that respond to dopamine are off)
• **** Kids make up for underactivity of NS through hyperactivity of behaviour (e.g. kids running around).
• Medications (such as amphetamines)
– In Canada, prescriptions for Ritalin increased 600% between 1985 and 2002
– Strattera (atomoxetine) is a non-stimulant drug; however, Health Canada has warned it may cause
emotional or behavioral change including increased risk for self-harm.
• Behaviour therapy (particularly cognitive-behavioural methods)
– CBT is hard to do w/ children
• Gold standard treatment is a combination of psychological and pharmacological treatments
• Research suggests that some children with ADHD go on to have other psychological problems later in life
Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder
• Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
– Recurrent DELINQUENT/ANTISOCIAL negativistic, hostile behaviour to authority, persists 6+ months
– Occurs in younger children, if not managed these symptoms lead to conduct disorder
• Conduct disorder
– A persistent, repetitive violation of rules and a disregard for the rights of others
– Older children
• Possible Causes:
– Biological factors (If parents have these disorders, likely children will have it)
– Personal pathology
– Family patterns (low socioeconomic status, abnormal family functioning)