PSY240 SUBSTANCE-RELATED DISORDERS - 5 pages of great notes :) easy to read, organized notes.

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1 Apr 2011
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etiology
-AA created in the 1930s
-model they use is widely accepted today
-why do some people become addicted and others don’t? no conclusive answer
-AA doesn’t work for everyone – because of way of setup, not everyone is comfortable with basic
principles
Etiological theories of substance abuse
2. now you’ve tried substance – why does continuation occur in some and not others
3. how does it occur in the first place?
5. although individual has abstained for some time, they went back to their old habits
moral theory
-alcohol was readily available
-used drinking to use it to make yourself feel better – sinful supposed to rely on God or the people in
your church
-if you were relying on anything besides your religious beliefs had a moral weakness
-prohibition alcohol illegal
-brings about moraless behaviour in individuals
-repealed
-continuation occurs because there is a rewarding aspect – pain decreasing
-addiction – lack of strong moral character – strong motivational component
-substance is helping you manage your problems – addiction occurs because strong motivation
component associated with addiction
-recovery – need to come up with other ways to handle your problems
-start relying on your church group who will help you take you on the right path
-relapse – lifestyle needs to be changed moral theory originally more towards the religious
component
-newer version doesn’t specify God, just say some spiritual component or just some other thing
that the individual considers a higher power (ex: ethics – something to tell you right from wrong) –
build your spirituality – build yourself from within
-older version – from moral perspective there is something wrong – should go back to God
-AA initiated as a response to the moral theory
-AA took the blame outside the individual – no one is going to blame you if you get diabetes or cancer
-diseases have some organic reason for why they occur – ex genetics
-AA started pitching why people lose control is from a disease theory perspective
-AA ties to moral model – there is something bigger than the individual
-when you start looking at it as a disease, less stigma – less blame on the person
-there is a strong genetic component to alcoholism – no gene
-although there are genes that code for the individual to consume more than others
-experience of drinking varies between individuals
-men on average can consume more alcohol
The jellinek chart
*don’t need to memorize*
-talks about the disease progressing from 1 stage to another
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Disease theory
initiation
-doesn’t really matter why you choose to take that first drink – but when you expose yourself to
alcohol…something changes physiologically
-stays dormant until exposure
Continuation
-in some individuals they will continue to use alcohol
-in middle phase people are starting to notice visible disturbances
Addiction
-has a strong physiological component
-the alcoholic produces chemicals in their body that has a particular response to alcohol consumption
-as a consequence of exposure body produces chemicals (THIQ) if you expose lab animals to this
chemical, you will increase drinking behaviour in these animals
-hypothesis suggests naturally there are natural endogenous chemicals produced that change your
future responses to alcohol
Recovery
-AA theory – you are never cured
-abstinence – if the chemical is doing this to your body…don’t start
-relapse – start moving back to your old drinking behaviours
-proof that this disease is bigger than you – needs to be managed disease returns
-brings awareness to the fact that the disease is bigger than the individual
Genetic theories
-if observed in biological parents – children show an increase in likelihood of alcoholism
-monozygotic twins show higher increase than dizygotic twins
-adopted individual come into a home that they are not biologically related to enters a family with
alcoholism – likelihood to becoming alcoholics increases by 50%
-although there is a strong heredity based component – can’t disregard environment
-type I – have mother and son displaying alcoholism….or father daughter
-type II – mother and daughter…..or father son
-type I – less criminal behaviour, less dependent personality traits, less violent criminal behaviour
-later in life – late 20s
-type II – starts earlier before age 25
Initiation
-have to be exposed to alcohol through friends, family, media – environment
Addiction
-occurs because of these factors
-predisposition – genetic makeup
-presents itself in a way that there is some sort of risk and protection
-risk factors – able to consume large amounts of alcohol – has impact on body function
-protective factor – gets sick after just a small amount of alcohol – doesn’t make them feel good overall
Relapse
-other genetic factors that might play a role – ex anxiety, depression, panic, ADHD can go hand in
hand with alcoholism
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