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Lecture 1

PSY240H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Psychopharmacology, Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder, Grey Matter

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Norman Farb

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Agoraphobia :
Definition : it’s a condition in which a person experiences fear or anxiety when
being in public.
Can involve public transportation, open spaces, or places that are crowded.
Can also be a fear of leaving the house.
One characteristic of agoraphobia is the concern that escape from the
situation would be difficult.
Age of onset: early adulthood.
More common in women than men.
May be caused by early-childhood trauma.
Panic disorder and agoraphobia can co-occur.
Treatment Both CBT approaches and antidepressants are effective in treating
Phobia :
Definition A specific phobia is the condition in which an individual experiences
fear or anxiety to a particular condition or object.
Common phobias fear of snakes, spiders, flying, height, blood, injections, and
the dark.
Large gender differences have been found with more females than males
displaying phobias.
Over 50% of people with one phobia were found to also have 3 or more
additional phobias during their lifetime.
Neuroscience perspective:
oBrain areas Anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the medial prefrontal
cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the thalamus
oExample: When fear objects are shown to individuals with phobias,
exaggerated activity is seen in the amygdala, the insula, and the cingulate
Phobia Treatment :
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