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PSY240H5 (200)
Lecture 1

PSY240H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Philippe Pinel, Homeostasis, Moral Treatment

Course Code
Norman Farb

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Approaches to Abnormality and different theories
Biological Approach
Underlying Biological Factor (e.g., genetic vulnerability to depression
inherited from parents, acquired head trauma)
Psychological Approach
Irrational beliefs, unconscious conflicts, childhood trauma
Social Approach
Relationships with classmates, poverty, family dynamics
Vulnerability-Stress Models (Stress-Diathesis Models)
A given stressor (e.g., job loss) or trigger (e.g., shift in hormonal levels) acts
upon predisposed vulnerability (e.g., genetic predisposition & previously
acquired coping strategies) to develop disorder
Feedback Loops for Vulnerability Stress Models

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The Vulnerability Stress Model of the Development of Disorders
Modern Perspectives A Focus on Biology
Classification systems using objective criteria and definitions gave credence to
biological factors as a cause of abnormality
The connection of syphilis to general paresis
Emil Kraplein Classifying symptoms into discrete disorders
Modern Perspectives: Psychoanalysis
Focuses on the role of the unconscious
Roots lie with Mesmer but the field becomes associated with Sigmund Freud
Freud one of the most important intellectual figures of the modern era
Not only seminal to the development of psychology and psychiatry, but
important to literary theory, anthropology, and the humanities
Modern Perspectives: Behaviourism
Emphasizes the role of the environment

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Pavlov, Watson, and Classical Conditioning
Thorndike, Skinner and Operant Conditioning
Examines role of reinforcement and punishment in determining behaviour
Modern Perspectives: The Cognitive Revolution
A focus on thought as determinate of behaviours and emotion
Albert Bandura and SelfEfficacy Beliefs
Albert Ellis and irrationality (Rational Emotive Therapy)
Aaron Beck and theory of depression
Modern Health Care
Canadian psychiatrist Heinz Lehman’s discovery of antipsychotic medications
made it possible for some people to be released from asylums.
This discovery transformed psychiatric care in two ways:
Severely affected patients could be treated in the community
Psychobiological factors were recognized as contributing to mental
Deinstitutionalization and the Movement Towards Collaborative Management
Patients’ Rights Movement
Mental patients could recover more fully or live more satisfying lives if they
were integrated into the community, with the support of communitybased
treatment facilities.
Masses of patients discharged into community care to promote autonomy and
enhance quality of life
Problems: Homelessness and incarceration
Today: Shared care between physicians and community mental health
professionals providing communitybased services and supports
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