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Lecture 7

PSY240H5 Lecture 7: Anxiety disorder


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H5
Professor
Norman Farb
Lecture
7

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Anxiety disorder( lecture 4)
Overview :
What is anxiety?
Cognitive processes
Neurobiology of anxiety
Developmental aspects
Types of anxiety
DSM classifications
GAD
SAD
Agoraphobia
Phobia
Panic disorder
Obsessive compulsive disorder
What is OCD and how is it classified?
Treatments
Hoarding
What is anxiety?
It’s a state where ind feels threatened by the potential occurrence of a future
negative event.
It’s a normal human experience
It can be a positive or negative impact.
Involves both cortical and subcortical processes.
Characteristics of anxiety: fear, panic and anxiety
Fear primitive emotion and occurs due to real or perceived current
threat. (flight or fight response)
Panic is very similar to fear. However, panic may be triggered in the
absence of provoking event.
A Historical Perspective
During the 19th and early 20th centuries many psychological problems were
described as neuroses(mental disorder not involve delusions).

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Until 1980, anxiety disorders were classified with dissociative and somatoform
disorders under the heading on neuroses.
Freud recognize the difference between objective fears and neurotic anxiety.
Adaptive vs. maladaptive fear
Adaptive fear Maladaptive fear
Concerns are realistic Concerns are unrealistic; source of
anxiety either cannot hurt them or
very unlike to occur
fear experienced in proportion to
the threat
Amount of fear experienced is out
of proportion to the threat
Fear response subsides when the
threat ends
Fear response continues even after
the threat is no longer present. also,
the person may experience a great
deal of anticipatory anxiety
Anxiety includes somatic, emotional, cognitive and behavioral symptoms
Somatic Emotional Cognitive Behavioural
Goosebumps emerge
Muscles tense
Heart rate increases
Respiration accelerates
Respiration deepens
Spleen contracts
Peripheral blood vessels
dilate
Liver releases
carbohydrates
Bronchioles widen
Pupils dilate
Perspiration increases
Adrenaline is secreted
Sense of dread
Terror
Restlessness
Irritability
Anticipation of
harm
Exaggerating of
danger
Problems in
concentrating
Hypervigilance
Worried,
ruminative
thinking
Fear of losing
control
Fear of dying
Sense of unreality
Escape
Avoidance
Aggression
Freezing
Decreased
appetitive
responding
Increased
aversive
responding
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