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Lecture 1

PSY240H5 Lecture 1: eating disorder

Course Code
Norman Farb

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Dieting & Society
History of Eating Disorders
Types of Eating Disorders
Medical Complications
Theories of Eating Disorders
Treatment & Prevention
Prevalence of Weight-Related Problems and Concerns
Eating disorders much more common among women and girls than men
World Health Organization survey , almost 75% of Grade 10 girls indicated
they were on a diet or needed to lose weight.
A Canadian study one in four adolescent females is actively dieting to lose
Dieting Prevalence
Why diet?
Health concerns
o Obesity is related to the development of type II diabetes, high blood
pressure, heart disease, stroke, and some forms of cancer
o Western culture values thin ideal Belief that being thin will increase

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Dieting Consequences
Failure and cycling
o Dieting is hard and often ends in failure (Wing & Phelan, 2005).
Eating regulation issues
o Chronic dieters forget how to use hunger as a cue for eating.
Historical Perspective
Eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia have been described for hundreds
of years.
1960s and 1970s, Western societies became more infatuated with thin physiques
for women.
Increase in prevalence of eating disorders over time ( specially modern
Types of Eating Disorders
Anorexia Nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
Binge Eating Disorder (BED)
Anorexia Nervosa
Sufferers have an extreme fear of being fat and often view themselves as fat and
undeserving of food.
Individuals suffering from anorexia have the impression that they are fat despite
being very underweight.
Some characteristics
Reduction in the total number of calories and avoidance of certain foods
Ritualistic eating
Excessive exercise
Purging in order to maintain weight loss
DSM Criteria for Anorexia Nervosa
Refusal to maintain body weight
Minimally normal weight for age and height
Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, despite being underweight
Distortions in the perception of one’s body weight or shape, denial of the
seriousness of the current low body weight
In females who have reached menarche, amenorrhea (absence of at least three
consecutive menstrual cycles)

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Subtypes of Anorexia Nervosa
Restricting type Simply refusing to eat might go for days without eating.
Binge/Purge type: binging or purging behaviors (vomiting or laxatives or diuretics).
Binge types
Subjective binge Some people who perceive themselves as extreme binge
eaters don’t actually eat extreme amounts of food during their binges;
Objective binge binge eating on an unusually large amount of food
Anorexia vs. Bulimia(differences in binge type )
The binge-purge type of anorexia is different from bulimia nervosa in two main
1. People with the binge/purge type of anorexia nervosa will continue to be at
least 15% below a healthy body weight.
2. Women with this type of anorexia may also develop amenorrhea, whereas
women with bulimia nervosa do not.
Bulimia Nervosa
Bulimia nervosa is episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory
behaviours designed to prevent weight gain.
Sufferers may be normal weight or slightly overweight.
Bulimics are very concerned about weight and base self-evaluation on weight and
body shape.
DSM Criteria for Bulimia Nervosa
Recurrent episodes of binge eating
In a small period of time eating large amount of food that most people in a given
time and circumstance.
Lack of control over eating during the episode
Recurrent inappropriate behaviours to prevent weight gain such as self-induced
vomiting or misuse of laxatives.
The binge eating and purging behaviours both occur at least twice a week for 3
Self-evaluation is influenced by body shape and weight.
Subtypes of Bulimia Nervosa
Non-purging type people use excessive exercise or fasting to control their
weight do not engage in purging
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