Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
UTM (20,000)
PSY (4,000)
PSY240H5 (200)
Lecture 1

PSY240H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: North Korea, Mind-Wandering, Dysphoria


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H5
Professor
Norman Farb
Lecture
1

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
Schizophrenia
summary
schizophrenia is the most severe, challenging, and disabling form of mental illness.
it is characterized by positive symptoms including hallucinations and delusions and by
negative symptoms like emotional withdrawal and lack of motivation.
most theoretical attempts concepts of diathesis or vulnerability and stress.
current research seeks to identify biological factors that may be involved in the
development of schizophrenia.
important advances have been made in treatment, including psychologically based
interventions such as cognitive-behaviour therapy, family therapy, and skills training.
a comprehensive approach might integrate medication with psychotherapy, family
therapy, and social skills training.
schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder where ind may hear voices, may see images not
seen by others, believe others want to harm them or control them and have bizarre
thoughts
schizophrenia is characterized by heterogeneity:
o individuals with very different family and personal history, vary in response to
treatment , and ability to live independently are given the same diagnosis.
oSome people don’t even show any symptoms
oSome are able to go to college and get a job
Subtypes: catatonic(non-normal motor activity), disorganized, paranoid(delusion), residual, and
undifferentiated. now not in the dsm
prevalence and socioeconomic features
the lifetime risk = 1 percent
most frequently between 20 and 40 years
men and women appear to be at equal risk
oMen display the symptoms earlier and more severe.
after diagnosed individuals are less likely to complete their education or maintain a job
and more likely to develop additional psychiatric problems, including depression and
alcohol abuse.
Ind with schizophrenia die early than general pop
1

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Factors in developing schizophrenia
oFirst noted as trasition from adolescence to adult
oNow research suggest that schizophrenia begins in early life
oWe should consider schizophrenia a neurodevelopmental disorder (fetus etc)
oProblems during fetus development
oAdolescence is the time for development of cortical network research showed larger
ventricles and grey matter loss
historical perspective
Assumed it existed under other names such as madness or lunacy.
prior history(1800) indicated that in can occur at any point in the lifetime rather than in
young people.
auditory hallucinations( 70% of patients) were rarely described in cases prior to the
1700s.
evidence suggest that schizophrenia was extremely rate until the late 18th century.
speculated that industrialization and environmental changes may be related to this
Not necessarily true because in the past people tend to die young, so cases were not
recorded.
stages of schizophrenia
phase i (pre-morbid)
o largely asymptomatic
oCognitive motor or social deficits
oPoor academic and social function
phase ii (prodromal)
o prodromal “oddness” and onset of subtle negative symptoms. (~late teens)
oStart of positive symptoms and or functional decline
phase iii (active)-psychotic phase
o active phase with destructive positive symptoms; treatment and relapse (~21-40
years old)
phase iv (static / residual)
o static phase, poor social functioning and prominent negative and cognitive
symptoms. (> 45 years-old)
oFewer positive symptoms and increase in negative symptoms
2
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

There are three main symptom clusters in schizophrenia:
positive symptoms – hallucination, delusion, disorganized thinking and behaviour
negative symptoms lack of affect in situation, poor motivation, social withdrawal
cognitive impairments (sub-divided two preceding categories)
Positive symptoms
Feelings or behaviors that are usually not present such as hearing or seeing things
Symptoms of psychosis, such as delusions, hallucinations, thought and speech disorder,
and grossly disorganized catatonic behaviour.
hallucinations: sensing something that is not really there
o false perceptions in the absence of any relevant sensory stimulus
delusions: a belief which usually cause a misinterpretation of perceptions or
experiences false beliefs that have no basis in reality
Catatonic behaviour is generally listed as a positive symptom
Catatonia is about as negative as you can get with a symptom! Catatonia usually involves
a complete withdrawal from the world, lack of responsiveness to stimulation, etc
catatonic behaviour does sometimes also involve excessive, excited movement that has
no purpose and no apparent trigger, which is definitely a positive symptom.
disorganized thoughts and speech are included as positive symptom
'Weird talk', including loose associations, neologisms, perseveration, clang, word salad,
etc.
Positive symptoms can still be signs of cognitive impairment, but there must be
something 'added' that is not normal, like repeating words or actively saying something
nonsensical for it to qualify as a positive symptom.
hallucinations
they are sensory experiences that involved any of the senses that are in odds with the ind
current env
Can occur in any of the 5 sense( auditory and tactile are most common)
3
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version