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Lecture 6

PSY240H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Psychological Evaluation, Clinical Psychology, Leat


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H5
Professor
Hywel Morgan
Lecture
6

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Lecture 6 –psy240
- Two ways to come up of a diagnosis
oAgreement clinically derived
Sometimes harder to develop
Easier than impericsal
Not based on hard facts
This is useful though
oImperically derived (uses statistics)
- Diagnosis can be a good thing or bad thing
--
- look at what the symptoms are, classify it and diagnosis it
- Psychological assessment
oWant to know what the problem is
oWant to know what you are dealing with
oApplied psychology
Clinical psychology, but not all
Some are counselors
Marriage
Bullying
Stress
Deals with non-psychopathology problems it doesn’t stop you
from functioning
oBackbone (assessment)
oPsychologists focus on assessment
oPsychology and psychiatry parted ways in 1940 (around)
We wanted to look at the impercism (how many people did this,
percentages)
Why did this become so interesting ?
oTo assess people going to war (world war 2)
oAssessment takes a long time
You’re looking at a number of things
oAssessment is an ongoing process, because even when you diagnosis something,
it can be something else
Poor validity in DSM
You’re only looking at behaviour is a never artificial, restricted
environment (lab, office)
othe yearbook of psychological mental measures
oit’s difficult to assess someone properly
you need to understand the variables
there are numbers of way to asses
- Classification & diagnosis
- Research methods

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VIDEO – history of psychology https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rs0TyrM8-CQ
- There are different ways we used to asses people in class
- Phernology
oThis is not right anymore
- Some of these aren’t useful
- Some of the first tests that were develops were what we call today “cognitive tests”
oWhat and how you can think
oIntelligence tests (we still call them this too)
oCan you think properly, normally, or above normal
oWe also have developed tests, testing how you feel
Personality tests
- Binet & simon
oDeveloped a scale
oSet the prototype for modern day intelligence
oIntelligence tests usually yields a quotient (a fraction)
oBinet said intelligence should be put as a quotient
The numerator is your mental intelligence and the denominator is the
average intelligence for people that age
And then they put it in a percent
Higher numerator = higher than average intelligence
othis was the beginning of testing and assessment
obinet was originally testing for children
if they were developing normally
Referral different names for the same thing
- getting a general sense of what the problem is
- most of these are licensed
oexcept a councillor
- social worker
- psychologist
- physician
ofamily doctor
- this is the first part of an assessment
- the nature of the referral is important
oit shows us the willingness of the client to do something about their issue
ocan also come from parents, caregivers, law
othe nature of the referral is important
oif you come by yourself you are more inclined to be motivated to seek treatment
oif you are “forced” there is going to be less motivation
olaw forces you by saying “jail or assessment”
- important to note if the person feels or looks put down
orapport building a strong and trusting relationship with a person (between at
least two people)
- giving answers that are honest
- history and background info needs to be given

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- basic information like primary symptoms and duration, the onset, and medical status
- person doing the referral isn’t always the same person doing the assessment
Three types of assessment
- you have an idea of what is going on, but now you have to dig deeper
- you need to determine what it is, and how you can treat it, and are you on your way to
getting a diagnosis
- all three of these take skill, and they can take hours or days & generating a report can
take a week or more
oyou pour over the norms and match them and compare the data
- interview
omost used
ocan uncover masked feelings (as well as testing)
oyou get the most information here
oquestion and answers
oa more formal observation
ointerviews require you to be verbal and for people to understand what they are
saying
tricky if you are a child or you can’t speak the same language
- observation
oare really important, but sometimes people can mask their problems
othe pick up
you can see what they are doing but people won’t pick up on what they are
doing
picks up on body language
osimplest form of observation
ocaution should be used when looking at observations
you are only looking at this behaviour in one environment
anxiousness and motivation can have an effect
lots of anxiousness and less motivation you’re not going to get
much
oyou also have a type of bias because you got the referral and now you are looking
for information to confirm your hypothesis
oyou could also have a personal paradigmatic approach
looking for something Freudian
overy valuable information can be gathered from at leat 4 categories
- testing
opsychologists do this well
Observation
- general appearance
oattire
ois what you are wearing suitable
odo you look normal ?
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