PSY240H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Separation Anxiety Disorder, Behaviour Therapy, Psychotherapy

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9 Apr 2016
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Lecture 8 – psy 240
Treatment – therapy
- Psychological therapies
oTreat the mind
oMind
oTalk therapy seems to work the same as drug therapy
There is clearly an interaction between what people say and how you feel
oWorks better for depression and anxiety over drug therapy, but drug therapy is
prescribed because it’s cheaper
- Somatic / biological therapies
oBrain disorders
oDrug therapy
oThere are very few disorders where you have to have the drugs
There is basically only one
Schizophrenia
Biochemical disorder
oDopamine (too much)
- Both psychological and biological therapies work equally, but it’s said a combination of
both of these work best
oNormally they work together
Psychological therapies
- Proposed by Freud
- Psychanalytical psychotherapies
oThe problems that you have, you don’t realize them, they are subconscious
oThe type of therapy free association
oSay whatever comes to mind, and eventually the issue will come up & you’ll
figure it out
Eventually you will say something that comes from the subconscious
oDrugs are cheaper talk therapy takes years sometimes
- Cognitive therapies
oComes from the idea that we think about things, and that some of the things we
think about may not be correct
oWe have faulty thoughts
oBased on the idea that we have somehow learned faulty thoughts
We think about the world around and the thoughts that we have are not
very accurate
oAddressing faulty thoughts, and asking the person why they think that, and
looking at the evidence as to what made them think that way
oConfrontational
Confronting your thoughts
“what eveidence do you have to think this way ?”
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oChallenges thoughts and beliefs and assumes that you learned these beliefs
incorrectly
oIncreases self worth, decreases incorrect beleifs, teach people that not all
individuals express their emotions in the same way
- Behaviour therapies
oTend not to want to know about your past/ childhood, or how you think about
things
oInterested in how you behave & react to things (towards stimuli)
oConditioning
Comes from these theories
Stimulus and response
Classical and operant condition
Classical associating two stimuli
Operant associating a stimuli with a response
All organisms can be taught though conditioning
oSays I can teach you to behave or act differently though reward, punishment or
interaction with a different stimulus
oModifying behaviour
oYou can treat alcoholism with taking drugs the drug you take makes you ill
when you drink alcohol and therefore it deters you from drinking anymore
oNot intrested in the origins of abnormal behaviour
oAssesses the current conditions, range of stimuli and terms of whether the
behaviour needs to remain for be eliminated
- Group therapies
oMore important now vs 30 years ago
o1) cheaper than individual
o2) you realize you’re not the only one with the problem
There are other people with similar issues & they can help you though
your problems because they have the same problems
oMuch more effective especially with addicition and anxiety, depression
Behaviour therapies
- Most common psychopathology is anxiety (usually comes with depression)
oBehaviour therapy is successful treating anxiety
oThere are anxiety drugs but they are also highly addictive
oThere are a number of different anxiety disorders
- Systematic desensitization
oGood at treating phobias
Irrational fears
oYou learned the phobia through classical conditioning
You’ve associated two stimuli with each other that don’t belong to each
other
You have learned to associate the sight of the spider with the scream of
your mother (something un pleasant)
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oIn this therapy you teach something new
oTeach that it’s not unpleasant
Reprogram you reteach you
oFairly lengthy process
oSystematic = stages
Least upsetting stimuli to the most upsetting (real life)
First calms you down, and the you open your eyes and the spider stimuli is
there
- Flooding or implosive therapy
oAll the stimuli you don’t like
oWalking into a room full of spiders right away
oVery effective because eventually the person realizes they aren’t dead yet
oThis is unethical for most phobias
It is used for some disorders
Used for OCD effective for this
Put your hand in the dirty bucket and leave it there
- Modeling
oYou show the behaviour
oThe therapist brings it a dog and pets the dog and shows you it isn’t scary
oThis is effective
- Extinction
oAlso effective, but there is a rebound effect, this means the behaviour sometimes
comes back
oStop reinforcing the behaviour
oWhen you walk by the store and you ask for candy, and your mom gets you
candy, you are going to expect candy every time you walk by it
When you don’t get the candy anymore because your mom says no, you
cry
Tantrum gets bigger and bigger & eventually the behaviour goes away if
it’s not reinforced
If there is no reason for the behaviour it tends to go away
- Positive reinforcement
oWe use this a lot
oA lot with children
oGold stars
oMost effective positive reinforcement
Social approval
People will work hard for social approval
VIDEO – crash course
Somatic / biological therapies
- States that you have the issue because of a brain disorder
oStates that you are simply neurons firing in your head
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Document Summary

Psychological therapies: treat the mind, mind, talk therapy seems to work the same as drug therapy. There is clearly an interaction between what people say and how you feel: works better for depression and anxiety over drug therapy, but drug therapy is prescribed because it"s cheaper. Somatic / biological therapies: brain disorders, drug therapy, there are very few disorders where you have to have the drugs. Both psychological and biological therapies work equally, but it"s said a combination of both of these work best: normally they work together. Psychanalytical psychotherapies: the problems that you have, you don"t realize them, they are subconscious, the type of therapy free association, say whatever comes to mind, and eventually the issue will come up & you"ll figure it out. Eventually you will say something that comes from the subconscious: drugs are cheaper talk therapy takes years sometimes.

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