PSY274H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Animal Communication, Eliza, Busboy

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9 Feb 2016
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PSY274: Intro to Human Communication Lecture 5
Conversational Behavior
So Far:
- The nature of human communication
- Human vs. animal communication; spoken language, sign language, co-speech gesture
Beginning today: Unit II
- Language in relation to other psychological domains
Language In Relation to Other Psychological Domains
- Cognition (thinking)
- Social decisions (case study: advertising)
- Interpersonal interaction (conversation)
Today: Conversational Behavior
- Starting point: It is not enough to know the inventory of symbols in your language,
accompanying paralinguistic and gestural cues, etc.
- Successful communication involves knowing HOW to use language in a socially
sophisticated way
Topics to be Covered
- Starting point: using artificial intelligence (AI) to gain insights into conversation behavior
- “Cooperation” in conversation
oTurn-taking
oSentence structuring
oCommon ground and reference
- Details in the act of speaking: disfluencies and their effects
oProduction
oPreparation
Using artificial intelligence to gain insights into the psychology of conversational interacton
Psychology of Communication: Goals of Discipline
- Essentially an enterprise of “Reverse engineering”
- Start with fully functioning system (mind/brain), try to deconstruct how it works
scientifically
Artificial Intelligence
- Goal runs in opposite direction: to create/build a fully functioning system
- Successes and failures can highlight the important properties of the fully functioning
system
Historical Development
- 1960s conversational simulation (e.g, ELIZA) using text-based system
“Turning Test” Competition
- Features:
oStimulus/response (doesn’t speak unless spoken to)
o“Canned” sentences, selected based on occurrence of particular words OR partial
repetition of previous sentence
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PSY274: Intro to Human Communication Lecture 5
oSimple pronoun reversals “I” (in input) you” (in response)
More Contemporary Versions (1990s, 2000s):
- “Chatterbots”/ “Chatbots”
- Loebner Prize
oMore sophisticated: e.g., “ALICE”
oUses ever-expanding knowledge base to tailor sentences to the user by
“guessing” age, background, interests, occupation, etc. through context clues
The “Lessons” From Al Initiatives:
- Even simple things (from the perspective of human communication) can require a lot of
build-in knowledge and complex decision systems
- … an initial example: the problem of “context” in conversation (see Napoli text for
numerous illustrations)
Examples Showing Context-Dependence
- Elliptical utterances
oQ: Where are you going?
oA: School
- Superficial nonsequiturs
oQ: Can you come to my party on Sunday?
oA: I have an exam on Monday
- Ambiguities
oThere’s a cup of coffee on the table. I just made it.
oFred ate the pie on the windowsill
oFred ate his dinner in the restaurant
Enrichment in Interpretation
- Have you been to Paris? (ie. ever, in your life)
- Have you eaten breakfast? (ie. today)
- The new Boeing 767 is very aerodynamic
- The new Boeing 767 is very comfortable
A Second Example Highlighting the Complex “Ingredients” of Conversation:
- Makin a chat-room avator produce deictic gestures at relevant points, based on typed
input….
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