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Lecture 8

PSY311H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Family Values


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY311H5
Professor
Stuart Kamenetsky
Lecture
8

Page:
of 2
PSY311 lecture 8
January 28, 2015
Security of Attachment
Type B: secure (67%)
o Upset when mom leaves but not hysterical
o Approaches mom, excited at moms return
Reflects positive relationship
Represents healthy prototypic relationship relationship that all other
relationships are based off of
Created a unique relationship with unique individual
Type A: insecure/avoidant (20%)
o Not upset when mom left; not upset with strangers
o Does not expect anything from mom
o Avoids mother at her return
May be because does not emotionally distinguish between significant caregiver
and strangers
Avoidance could also be a way of punishing mom for returning
Type C: insecure/resistant (10%)
o Ambivalent relationship
o Greatly upset at separation
Doesn’t know if moms going to come back
o At return different to console
Seeks and resists proximity with mom
Wants to be held bc there is a relationship but on the other hand is angry at
mom for leaving
o Unhealthy relationship
Characteristics:
Varies to a certain extent by culture
o Initially research on this subject was egocentric the west does it better and lets see
how we can help others do the same
o But then looked at other cultures i.e. look at Japan. Very strong family values, very
strong economy, very successful country. So can we really say that these three
attachments were more successful than the type seen in Japan?
Japan: moms spend more exclusive time raising the child in the beginning years;
high degree of exposure to mom primarily
North America: child more involved in groups swimming lessons, get together
with other moms and their kids, extended family and friends involvement
So, child born in second environment will show less resistance to being
left with strangers
May be influenced by child’s temperament
May vary according to adult to whom the child is attached
For the most part type of attachment is stable over time
o In relatively stress free families
o Not true in disadvantaged families socioeconomic factors, alcohol abuse, child abuse,
changes in life (child may start out with secure attachment and not stay that way)
For the most part type (security) of attachment is stable across individuals
Two Important Hypotheses
1. Sensitivity hypothesis: security of attachment is determined by the degree to which mother was
sensitive and responsive in handling infant during early years
a. How does this apply to three security of attachment?
i. Type B mom was there for the child, when child sought proximity reliability
there
ii. Type A when child sought proximity mom reliably not there. In long run
learn to take responsibility for themselves.
iii. Type C when child sought proximity mom was inconsistent. She either
responded appropriately, inappropriately or not at all.
NOTE: have to respond reliably/consistently and appropriately
b. How could you test this hypothesis?
i. Raise different children with different levels of sensitive and responsive
caregivers.
Problems:
1. Not ethical
2. even if we use biologically identical children, environment differ in more
than just rearing environment
3. adoptive families generally care about child so rearing environment may
actually be similar
ii. Cross culturally
iii. Case studies multiple
Problems:
1. In the last 2 types = correlational not causal
2. Temperament
3. Behaviour of mom may change when being observed
NOTE: So, even though this hypothesis seems intuitively correct, we cannot get
empirical evidence for it .