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Lecture 8

PSY311H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Bacon, Single Parent, Peer Pressure

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Stuart Kamenetsky

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Lecture 8
Families, parents and socialization
- Interrelated concepts as socialization takes place largely by parents within the context of
the family
oThey are an individual person, but that are also all interconnected
- Family systems (characteristics):
The group is greater than the sum of their parts
oIntegrity of subsystems
You have different relationships between each of the individuals in the
Pairs of the relationship (mother and son)
These sub systems may effect one another
oCircularity of influences
Children also influence parents
There are influences in every direction
oStability and change
Systems are constantly effected by outside influences there will constantly
be outside influences on family, initially systems resists change, but once
change occurs it effects the system
Change needs to happen though, there is going to be reluctance at first, but
there will likely be an integration after time
Type of families
- Nuclear families
oMom and dad are married to each other and they raise biological children when
they are married
- Traditional families
oThe man brings home all the bacon and the mother takes care of the children
- Families can change for many different reasons
oGrandparents move in
oStep parents/siblings
oWorking (mother not there anymore)
oSame sex parents
- More and more it is difficult to state what a family consists of
Single parent families (Weinraub and Gringlas) (1):
- Large increase since the 1960s throughout the world
o9.1% in 1960 compared to 24.7% in 1990 in the US
- 55% among African Americans in the US
- Number refer to proportion of children living within only one parent

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- Prediction is that half of American children will spend some part of their childhood in a
single-parent family
- Single parenthood is a transitional status of many parents within median length of time
children are raised by single mothers of 6 years
Single parent families (2)
- Negative view (breakdown of moral values) is in part accurate
oThere are consequences for children
oYes adults have the right to do this, but once they do this and children are
involved, some may deem them as selfish you are now trying to live your own
life and you may not focus on the child as much as you did before
oThere is a highly likelihood of emotional problems, psychological problems,
adjustment problems, school performance, lower education attainment (not
finishing high school), greater levels of behavioural adjustment problems, later
marriages but earlier child barring
- Children of single parents, are often referred to as “at risk”
oBring brought up in a single parent family increases the likelihood of all these
experiences happening
- Poverty is an alternative explanation (half of all single parents live below the poverty
oIn most large cities you need two incomes
oNot having proper nutrition
oNot having a stimulating environment or not living in the best neighbourhood
- Poverty produces dangerous neighbourhoods, inferior housing and schooling, factors that
can easily lead, on their own, to developmental difficulties
Single parent families (3)
- Single families are far from being homogenous
oTeen pregnancies
oFather or mother
oDifferent arrangements (grandparents taking care of child)
oMay not be the parent (bruce wayne)
oIn vitro
- It is important to separate the factors that may be responsible for children of single parent
families to be at risk:
oDevelopmental difficulties associated with children in all types of families
Just because you have both parents and are rich doesn’t mean you won’t
have developmental difficulties
oDevelopmental difficulties that are unique to children brought up by ingle parents
oDevelopmental difficulties that differ according to type of single parent families
Single Parent Families (4):
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