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Lecture 3

PSY312H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Standard Deviation, Intelligence Quotient, Metacognition

Course Code
Christine Burton

of 3
Cognitive Development
Lecture 3
Monday, May 14, 2012
Information Processing Model: Atkinson-Schiffrin Model
Ray Task
first task: how effectively you can defect and perceive the incoming sensory stimuli using the
five sensory domains (this is how we interact with the environment)
Incoming sensory (Examples: Audio/Visual -> electromagnetic radiation or energy ie.
wavelengths from lights, sounds etc. OR Somatosensory -> mass) has to be transduced into
electro chemical signals(neurotransmitters) in the nervous system by receptors in sensory
organs in order to be perceived
ALL incoming information is detected by the brain (sensory register) but we filter some
information out (For example, we filter out somatosensory information when we are sitting
down; we do not feel our clothes on us or the chair we are sitting on)
After about 1/2 second later, some information leaves the memory (decay)
The information we recognize is things we pay attention to (ex. Pattern recognitions: patterns of
language that develop through time)
Cocktail party syndrome: we filter out a lot of information we hear around us, but then we hear
our name and it only takes 1/2 second to recognize and register (Attention)
Attention, judgement. problem solving, decision making is all completed in frontal lobe of the
brain- executive to the working memory
-----------> pattern recognition
-----------> Sensory Recognition -------------------> Short Term Memory/ encoding Long
-----------> Working Memory ----------> Term
-----------> <------------------- (Consciousness) <---------- Memory
attention retrieval
| |
Decay (1/2 sec) Decay (30 sec)
3 components of working memory include: central executive, visuospatial sketchpad (Ray task),
phonological loop
the capacity of working memory is about 3-4 with a capacity of 7 items, chunks of information
The Number task: Say 4 numbers, 5, then 6. More items, the more difficult it is to remember,
and the task becomes more difficult if we are asked to repeat the numbers but backwards
Encoding = we encode into the LTM through rehearsal and elaboration
Long Term memory = semantic memories (knowledge like “What is the capital of Canada”) and
episodic memories (personal experiences like “What did you eat today”)
Bottom up processing going towards long term memory
Top-down processing going away from long term memory
We do both types of processing at the same time in order to understand in situations such as
listening to a professor talk in English
The information in the long term memory may be unretrievable to do forgetting, but it does not
necessarily decay; we may recall a memory in a different situation
Development of Information Processing
Infants are born recognizing auditory signals such as a mother's voice
Attention: According to Piaget, infants compare new information to old information, more
attention to novelty situations in the first year. A lot of species are born with neophobia (fear of
new things) which is also adaptive, yet humans are built in with an attraction to new things and
We don't have to be fearful during these periods because someone else is fearful for us (nuture)
Memory: There are other distinctions of long term memory other than semantic and episodic
memory including procedural memory (how to ride a bike, how to drive, how to speak) which
we remember by practicing them
Categorization: Perceptual categorization is based on similar parts or appearance, where as
conceptual categorization is based on common functions or behaviour
Testing Verbal an Nonverbal memories (from slide) is a test of long term memory
IQ: If you score 161 on the test, and 100% of the people scored 161
161/161 if would mean your IQ is 100, thus 100% average
the IQ test was designed by Binet at Stanford University to test children's information
processing abilities
it compares scores across the same chronological age
the denominator is collected from a large number of people
large amounts of data such as this information tends to create a bell curve, thus it becomes
standardized information
One standard deviation below the mean 85-100 =34% and one standard deviation above the
mean is 100-115=34%
Two standard deviations below the mean would be mental retardation and two standard
deviations above would be gifted
tests are not biased, represent success in common culture
culturally biased tests include culturally specific communication styles, test styles and
Improvements in Information Processing in Early Childhood (Ages 2-5)
Attention: inhibitions and planning, both functions of frontal lobe
Memory: conceptual but unsophisticated memory strategies using scripts (they cannot rehearse,
elaborate or organize) and every day experiences
An undeveloped hippocampus might be why we cannot remember before the age of 3 =
infantile amnesia
Theory of mind: metacognition is understanding that we can understand our thought processes
Recognition and Recall is part of the retrieval process
The Neo-Piagetians said that information processing increases speed in the working memory
rather than shifting to a new stage. This involves concrete conceptual structures rather than
perceptual structures
Attention in Middle Childhood (Ages 6-7)
attention is supposed to become more selective, adaptable, planful
ADHD or ADD may become apparent at this age (inhibition problems causes hyperactivity),
they cannot focus nor filter
Stimulants(drugs) are counterintuitive, they stimulate the frontal lobe functions to increase
inhibitions and attention
Development of Memory Strategies
typical intelligence test items (slides)
Information Processing Improves in Adolescence
According to Piaget's, by adolescence you are using the same functions you would as an adult
Coordinating Theory suggests with evidence improves with age and varies across individuals
Scientific Reasoning Task: two groups of balls, balls that provide good and bad tennis serves.
Use reason to explain why they are categorized as “good” and “bad”
Children in early and middle childhood struggle with this task
Using perceptual reasoning, children may suggest that the bad balls are generally more
colourful and spikey therefore would not be as good
Adolescence would use more conceptual reasoning
Creativity in Adolescence
Convergent thinking = ability to put things together (similarities task requiring brining two
concepts together)
Divergent or Abstract thinking = self consciousness and self focusing, they can imagine an
audience, sensitivity to criticism, personal fable (what a person thinks their behaviour is like)