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PSY312H5 Lecture Notes - Theory Of Multiple Intelligences, Inductive Reasoning, Deductive Reasoning

Course Code
Hywel Morgan

of 2
June 13, 2012
-schemas fill in the gaps and make thinking more efficient…however they can lead to errors
-the main component of a schema is to guide the drawing of an inference
-stereotypes are a product of a schema
-schemas are learned from toddlerhood
-techniques used by advertising companies that capitalize on our schemas:
-hedging uses words that seriously weaken the force of a claim/fact therefore it isn’t
deceptive (illegal) but rather it is misconceptive (legal)
-ex: crest toothpaste fights cavities fight could end in a win or a lose our schema
leaves out the losing part of the schema
-ex: palm olive leaves dishes virtually spotless
-eliptical comparative uses ad campaigns that uses no basis for comparison
-ex: less fat less fat than what?
-ex: even more more than what?
-implied causation two things stated together implying causation
-ex: get a great tan this summer, use coopertone implying if you use coopertone
then you will get a great tan
-pseudoscientific claim “like science” claim
-ex: 7 out of 10 dentists recommend dentyne just a percentage but you also need a
-ex: 40% more cleaning power than the popular brand what’s the popular brand?
What is cleaning power?
-implied negative the negative situation is implied (not stated outright)
-ex: coca cola has no cancer causing artificial sweeteners implying that other cola
companies do have cancer causing ingredients
-thinking process often jumps to conclusions and resists challenging facts and leads to troubled
3 primary facets of cognition
1) When we think we process information
2) Attribute thinking at a conscious level
-formal reasoning = deductive reasoning
-everyday reasoning = inductive reasoning
-inductive reasoning is the first to develop in childhood
-IQ tests measure verbal and visuo-spatial intelligence as part of analytical intelligence
-other types of intelligence: musical, physical
-people who cannot adapt to their environments due to an incapacity in intelligence mental
Horn and Cattell’s two-factor theory of intelligence
-young people are good at fluid intelligence and peaks in early 20s and then begins to decline
-related to creativity and being able to think on your toes
-crystallized intelligence growing after early 20s but knowledge base is pretty solid
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple intelligence
-by about 12 years of age you should realize that you exceed in at least one of these skills and should
pursue that intelligence
Ways to generate solutions
1) trial and error is the least sophisticated solution
-piaget noticed this with the pendulum experiment
2) algorithms a method that uses computated steps
-the next least sophisticated
3) heuristics rules of thumb
-akin to schemas
4) insight