lecture notes- detailed

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9 Jan 2011
-The nature of work has changed alot in the past 100 years-
-Work during the pre-industrial society (past) consisted mostly of farming, where a
family worked together as a unit- the son learns from the father about how to be a
-When we entered the industrial age/revolution: which began in england, there was a
dramatic growth in manufacturing- there was alot of factory based work- very labour
-This led to increasing productivity, but decreasing assembly from workers because
the development of technology
-70% of jobs were related to service delivery
-The future consists of less agriculture, manufacturing goods
-Service: different activities such as domestic wife at home,
transportation/distribution of goods
Today, educational level and health influence ones choice of career
-industrial psychology: deals with issues regarding career choice- examines how a career is
-Research says that out of the people in todays time, 50% will experience a career
change- job mobility is becoming an increasing trend
How do career changes occur:
-Change is forced- ex. Labour moves to a cheaper place
- structural change occurs in economy: decline in farming and fishing industries
-Emergence of new economic activity: technology, therefore calls for more skilled
forms of labour
-A skill may no longer be suitable to ones abilitys, desires, lifestyle anymore ex. The
life of an athlete- has a short career span
there is more career mobility now. Why?
-People are spending more time in the labour market because they are living longer.
Ex. Iin the past, people use to work for 21 years, now it has increased to 37 years-
therefore, spending a longer period in the work force can create changes in a career
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Choosing a career is the most important decision in an adults life
-How do we choose occupations? We examine our values, attitudes and try to find a
career that is similar to our interests and talents. This will lead to a satisfying
-Ex. We marry people who share traits similar to our own, at the same time- we must
select from whats available.
-2 way process: employer and employee evaluate eachother
Other influences:
FAMILY: can pressure us into taking a certain job- there is a strong correlation between
income, status, and education level
-Family can provide their child with opportunities
- can pay college tuitions so that the kid can get an education
- may serve as a social connection for career opportunities
-If a child is close to a parent in adolescence years, he/she will want to follow parents
-Also parents have values for their kids, may want child to follow in their footsteps
and have a career like theirs- increases the chances of the child to enter in the same
occupation and be successful
-Negative influence: parents may be putting a pressure onto the child to think/act
according to the norm, which may not suit the childs personality/interests
EARLY WORK EXPERIENCES: earliest work experiences (as a teenager) can influence a
career choice-
Ex. Teenage girl may be a babysitter- becomes familiar to an informal work arrangement,
whereas a teenage boy finds a job doing manual labour-earns more, experiences formal
work setting
Therefore, early work experiences are often gender bound: which consequently influences
one to choose a gendered career
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