Lecture 10. 4 adolescent social (collective) identity: cliques are small, composed of 2-6 individuals who are very close to each other, often similar in terms of age, gender, ses, and cultural backgrounds, adolescent identity: crowds. Increasing cognitive sophistication allows adolescents to abstractly define and label peer groups as crowds: ex. Jocks vs. the kids who play basketball during lunch time and after school : membership in crowd is based on reputation and stereotype, ex. 10th grade prosocial activities predicted lower substance use and higher self- esteem up to 8 years later: ex. Both participation in prosocial activities and the brain social identity were predictive of lower rates of substance use and higher self-esteem: ex. Both participation in performing arts and the basket case social identity were predictive of clinically significant behaviour: because of overlap between performing arts and basket case, but there were some inconsistencies, ex. Brain social identity related to more positive outcomes than just engaging in prosocial activities: ex.