PSY327H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Longitudinal Study, Literature Review, Reelin

43 views12 pages
21 Nov 2018
School
Department
Course
Professor
Psychology 327
Plan for Today
Part 1: Divorce and non-marital break-ups
Part 2: Being single
Questions
Why do so many marriages end up in divorce?
Do people ever stay in relationships in which they are not happy because they dont
want to hurt their partner?
Are break-ups as devastating as we think they will be?
Are some people afraid of being single?
Increased since mid-1930s
Peaked in 1980
Then started to decrease
50% of marriages (in U.S.) will end in separation or divorce
Why Is the Divorce Rate So High?
1.
Our expectations are too high.
2.
More women work outside the home.
3.
Gender roles are changing.
4. Western culture is becoming more individualistic.
5. Divorce is less shameful and easier to obtain.
6. We have increased exposure to divorce.
1. Our Expectations are Too High
People may expect more out of marriage than they used to.
People are pursuing marriage as a path to personal fulfillment and expect partner to
fulfill many roles.
Many people feel dissatisfied when their relationships fall short of these unrealistic
expectations.
Today, we turn to one person to provide what an entire village once did: a sense of
grounding, meaning, and continuity. At the same time, we expect our committed
relationships to be romantic as well as emotionally and sexually fulfilling.
Esther Perel (2007)
2. More Women Work Outside the Home
Women have economic freedom to leave dissatisfying relationships.
Spouses report more conflict between work and family, and the more hours a wife
works outside the home, the lower quality of marriage.
Amount of time spouses spend together has declined.
Time Spent with Spouse
3. Gender Roles are Changing
Women are becoming more assertive and self-reliant.
Partners in many marriages are dividing household responsibilities more equitably.
Different effects on men (getting less satisfied) and women (getting more satisfied).
Housework and Marital Satisfaction
4. Western Culture is Becoming More Individualistic
Less tied to communities and less likely to live near extended family
This means less social support and companionship which has implications
Ask more of our spouse than we did in the past
Less affected by community norms that might discourage them from divorce
Divorce Rates around the World
Our shared perceptions of divorce are a lot less negative.
Less likely to work hard to rescue a faltering relationship when divorce seems like an
easier alternative.
There are more children of divorce: Children who experience the divorce of their
parents are more likely to divorce themselves when they become adults.
More of us have friends who are divorced: When others in our social network divorce,
were more likely to do so too.
Why Is the Divorce Rate So High?
1. Our expectations are too high.
2. More women work outside the home.
3. Gender roles are changing.
4. Western culture is becoming more individualistic.
5. Divorce is less shameful and easier to obtain.
6. We have increased exposure to divorce.
When people were asked what had caused their divorces, here is what they said:
Only rarely did people consider broader influences, such as income and education, to
have been important.
Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation model (VSA)
Enduring Vulnerabilities
Adverse family experiences, poor education, maladaptive traits
Stressful events
E.g., unemployment, life transitions, illness, childbirth
Adaptive Processes
Ways couples deal with stress, conflict e.g., communication styles, stress
management
PAIR Project
Processes of Adaptation in Intimate Relationships
Began in 1981, tracked 168 couples over 13 years
< 50% are still married
Tested three explanations for high rates of divorce
Enduring Dynamics
Spouses bring problems, incompatibilities, and vulnerabilities that surfaced
during their courtship.
Marriages that are headed for divorce are weaker than others from their very
beginning.
Disillusionment
Couples typically begin their marriages with unrealistically positive views of their
relationship
Both the enduring dynamics and disillusionment models predicted divorce
The disillusionment model was the best predictor of divorce
Couples that experienced the steepest declines in positive affect and passion at
greatest risk
The Early Years of Marriage Project
This project has been following 174 white couples and 199 black couples since they
married in 1986.
Sixteen years later, most of the black couples (55%) had divorced, compared to a third
(36%) of the white couples.
Results explained in terms of income inequality
The Reality for Low SES Couples
Low socioeconomic status presents challenges that make life and relationships more
difficult.
Few resources
Health difficulties
Lower levels of education
Little free time
Stress from these general problems spills over to the relationship.
Health outcomes
Second most stressful life event (second only to death of spouse)
Decreases physical well-being
Social networks
Lose about half of social network
But more time with family and friends
Economic resources
Loss of joint income
Mens standard of living often increases, womens decreases
Dissolution leads to better outcomes if poor quality relationship
Nonmarital Romantic Relationship Breakups
Typical Process of Breaking Up
When Do People End Romantic Relationships?
Meta-Analysis of Non-Marital Break-Ups
Predictors with a Large Effect Size
Predictors with a Medium Effect Size
Predictors with a Small Effect Size
Break-Up Decisions: A Story of the Self
Recruited participants in relationships through M-Turk
Initial N = 4106, age = 26, relationship length = 22 months
Weekly emails: Are you still with your partner?
Final N = 1281, responded for an average of 10 weeks. 14% broke up
Results
What About?
Study 2: Replication Study
Recruited participants currently thinking about breaking up, online
Initial N = 1037
Two month follow-up: Are you still with your partner?
Final N = 500. 29% broke up
Results
Implications
People will stay in unfulfilling relationships for the partners sake
May help to ride out temporary rough patches
May also act as a barrier to dissolving chronically unfulfilling relationships
Aftermath of Break-Ups
For those who are broken up with without warning, the results can be devastating.
For leavers
Sense of happiness, relief, and freedom
Opportunity to find inner strength and renewed meaning in life
Guilt, regret, and sometimes shame over hurting ones partner
Diary Study of Break-Ups
58 undergrads who ended a close relationship (4+ months) in past 2 weeks
Beeped multiple times a day for 27 days
Four emotions: Love, sadness, anger, relief
Are break-ups as awful as people think they will be?
Affective Forecasting Study
69 undergraduate students in relationships
17-19 years old
9-month longitudinal study, 4 time points
38% broke up within first 6-months, analyses focus on them
Measures
Actual distress (people who broke up, week 0, 2, 6, 10)
In general, I am pretty happy these days.
I am extremely upset that my relationship ended.
Predicted distress (those in reln., week 0, 2, 6, 10)
If your relationship were to end in the next two weeks, how much would you
agree with those two statements.
Results
Who Made More Errors?
People overpredicted their distress when:
they reported being more in love at the session immediately preceding the break-up
they felt it was less likely they would enter into a new relationship at session before
break-up
They played less of a role in initiating the break-up
Implications
People do indeed recover from a blow that beforehand seems crushing.
Recovery from a romantic break-up happens more quickly than we think it will.
Completing
Course Evaluations
Your opinion and feedback matter!
I will change the course in the future based on student feedback, I promise.
Deadline extended to Tuesday Nov 29
Turn in paper copy next week at beginning of class
Research Paper
Introduction: importance of topic, specific research questions or hypotheses
Literature review: review literature on your topic
Proposal: propose a study (or studies) to address your question; needs to be tailored
to YOUR question.
# of references: vary depending on topic (8 minimum)
Important Tips
Do not pick a method until you have a specific research question or hypothesis
Write out your questions/hypothesis
What needs to be done to answer that question?
Make yourself answer this question: how does my method allow me to answer my
research question or test my hypothesis?
Additional Questions?
now is your chance :)
Plan for Today
Part 1: Divorce and non-marital break-ups
Part 2: Being single
Being Single in Internet Age
What is your relationship status?
For the first time in western society,
the number of single people outnumbers people in a relationship.
Canadian population is 52% single (single, separated/divorced, and widowed) versus
48% coupled (common-law and married)
(Statistics Canada, 2016).
Meta-analysis of 58 studies
42 culturally diverse nations
(N = 59,000)
Conclusion: Married individuals
tend to report greater well-being
compared to single individuals.
Why?
1. Social support
1. Social stigma
Single people perceive less social support
Even though, compared to coupled individuals, single people have:
More friends
Spend more time with friends and family
Better quality relationships with friends and family
Think about your single experiences (current or past). Do/did you feel treated unfairly
because of your single status?
Definition: stigmatizing of adults who are single
Not as commonly recognized as other isms (e.g., racism)
Nonviolent, softer form of bigotry
Not often recognized, and when it is pointed out, it is often regarded as legitimate.
1,000 undergraduates listed characteristics of people who were married (one
condition) or single (other)
Married: seen as mature, stable, honest, happy, kind and loving
Single: seen as immature, insecure, self-centered, unhappy, lonely, and ugly (but also
independent)
Caring, kind and giving (50% for married, 2% for singles)
Participants read vignettes about
Single people
People in romantic relationship
How do people perceive a vignette character that is single versus coupled?
Miserable and lonely
Warm and caring
Single men paid less than married men even with similar age and comparable work
experience
Housing discrimination: rental agents more likely to choose a married couple (60%)
over a cohabiting couple (23%) or pair of friends (17%)
Adults asked to list any groups to which they belonged that might be targets of
negative stereotypes or discrimination
Only 4% of singles listed singles as a category
Contrasted with 100% of gay people, 90% of obese people, 86% of African Americans,
and 72% of women
Can single people be as happy as those who are in a relationship?
187 undergraduate students
4,024 nationally representative individuals in New Zealand
Completed measures of
Relationship status
Health/well-being
Avoidance social goals
Single women lead lonely, depressing, and incomplete lives. Their unhappiness
increases exponentially with each passing birthday, because past a certain age a
woman is used up. All women are desperate to marry or remarry because marriage
is their only real chance for security and happiness.
- excerpt from: Flying solo: Single women in midlife
Fear of Being Single
Fear of Being Single
Study 1
Relationship Dependence
Study 2
Initiating Break-Ups
Study 3
Romantic Interest (Responsiveness)
Study 4
Romantic Interest (Attractiveness)
There are lots of single people out there!
Singles are stigmatized and discriminated against.
Singles can be just as happy as people who are coupled.
The fear of being single can lead people to be less selective on the dating market.
We need more research on single people.
Week 11
Wednesday, November 21, 2018
12:37 PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

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Psychology 327
Plan for Today
Part 1: Divorce and non-marital break-ups
Part 2: Being single
Questions
Why do so many marriages end up in divorce?
Do people ever stay in relationships in which they are not happy because they dont
want to hurt their partner?
Are break-ups as devastating as we think they will be?
Are some people afraid of being single?
Increased since mid-1930s
Peaked in 1980
Then started to decrease
50% of marriages (in U.S.) will end in separation or divorce
Why Is the Divorce Rate So High?
1. Our expectations are too high.
2. More women work outside the home.
3.
Gender roles are changing.
4.
Western culture is becoming more individualistic.
5.
Divorce is less shameful and easier to obtain.
6.
We have increased exposure to divorce.
1. Our Expectations are Too High
People may expect more out of marriage than they used to.
People are pursuing marriage as a path to personal fulfillment and expect partner to
fulfill many roles.
Many people feel dissatisfied when their relationships fall short of these unrealistic
expectations.
Today, we turn to one person to provide what an entire village once did: a sense of
grounding, meaning, and continuity. At the same time, we expect our committed
relationships to be romantic as well as emotionally and sexually fulfilling.
Esther Perel (2007)
2. More Women Work Outside the Home
Women have economic freedom to leave dissatisfying relationships.
Spouses report more conflict between work and family, and the more hours a wife
works outside the home, the lower quality of marriage.
Amount of time spouses spend together has declined.
Time Spent with Spouse
3. Gender Roles are Changing
Women are becoming more assertive and self-reliant.
Partners in many marriages are dividing household responsibilities more equitably.
Different effects on men (getting less satisfied) and women (getting more satisfied).
Housework and Marital Satisfaction
4. Western Culture is Becoming More Individualistic
Less tied to communities and less likely to live near extended family
This means less social support and companionship which has implications
Ask more of our spouse than we did in the past
Less affected by community norms that might discourage them from divorce
Divorce Rates around the World
Our shared perceptions of divorce are a lot less negative.
Less likely to work hard to rescue a faltering relationship when divorce seems like an
easier alternative.
There are more children of divorce: Children who experience the divorce of their
parents are more likely to divorce themselves when they become adults.
More of us have friends who are divorced: When others in our social network divorce,
were more likely to do so too.
Why Is the Divorce Rate So High?
1. Our expectations are too high.
2. More women work outside the home.
3. Gender roles are changing.
4. Western culture is becoming more individualistic.
5. Divorce is less shameful and easier to obtain.
6. We have increased exposure to divorce.
When people were asked what had caused their divorces, here is what they said:
Only rarely did people consider broader influences, such as income and education, to
have been important.
Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation model (VSA)
Enduring Vulnerabilities
Adverse family experiences, poor education, maladaptive traits
Stressful events
E.g., unemployment, life transitions, illness, childbirth
Adaptive Processes
Ways couples deal with stress, conflict e.g., communication styles, stress
management
PAIR Project
Processes of Adaptation in Intimate Relationships
Began in 1981, tracked 168 couples over 13 years
< 50% are still married
Tested three explanations for high rates of divorce
Enduring Dynamics
Spouses bring problems, incompatibilities, and vulnerabilities that surfaced
during their courtship.
Marriages that are headed for divorce are weaker than others from their very
beginning.
Disillusionment
Couples typically begin their marriages with unrealistically positive views of their
relationship
Both the enduring dynamics and disillusionment models predicted divorce
The disillusionment model was the best predictor of divorce
Couples that experienced the steepest declines in positive affect and passion at
greatest risk
The Early Years of Marriage Project
This project has been following 174 white couples and 199 black couples since they
married in 1986.
Sixteen years later, most of the black couples (55%) had divorced, compared to a third
(36%) of the white couples.
Results explained in terms of income inequality
The Reality for Low SES Couples
Low socioeconomic status presents challenges that make life and relationships more
difficult.
Few resources
Health difficulties
Lower levels of education
Little free time
Stress from these general problems spills over to the relationship.
Health outcomes
Second most stressful life event (second only to death of spouse)
Decreases physical well-being
Social networks
Lose about half of social network
But more time with family and friends
Economic resources
Loss of joint income
Mens standard of living often increases, womens decreases
Dissolution leads to better outcomes if poor quality relationship
Nonmarital Romantic Relationship Breakups
Typical Process of Breaking Up
When Do People End Romantic Relationships?
Meta-Analysis of Non-Marital Break-Ups
Predictors with a Large Effect Size
Predictors with a Medium Effect Size
Predictors with a Small Effect Size
Break-Up Decisions: A Story of the Self
Recruited participants in relationships through M-Turk
Initial N = 4106, age = 26, relationship length = 22 months
Weekly emails: Are you still with your partner?
Final N = 1281, responded for an average of 10 weeks. 14% broke up
Results
What About?
Study 2: Replication Study
Recruited participants currently thinking about breaking up, online
Initial N = 1037
Two month follow-up: Are you still with your partner?
Final N = 500. 29% broke up
Results
Implications
People will stay in unfulfilling relationships for the partners sake
May help to ride out temporary rough patches
May also act as a barrier to dissolving chronically unfulfilling relationships
Aftermath of Break-Ups
For those who are broken up with without warning, the results can be devastating.
For leavers
Sense of happiness, relief, and freedom
Opportunity to find inner strength and renewed meaning in life
Guilt, regret, and sometimes shame over hurting ones partner
Diary Study of Break-Ups
58 undergrads who ended a close relationship (4+ months) in past 2 weeks
Beeped multiple times a day for 27 days
Four emotions: Love, sadness, anger, relief
Are break-ups as awful as people think they will be?
Affective Forecasting Study
69 undergraduate students in relationships
17-19 years old
9-month longitudinal study, 4 time points
38% broke up within first 6-months, analyses focus on them
Measures
Actual distress (people who broke up, week 0, 2, 6, 10)
In general, I am pretty happy these days.
I am extremely upset that my relationship ended.
Predicted distress (those in reln., week 0, 2, 6, 10)
If your relationship were to end in the next two weeks, how much would you
agree with those two statements.
Results
Who Made More Errors?
People overpredicted their distress when:
they reported being more in love at the session immediately preceding the break-up
they felt it was less likely they would enter into a new relationship at session before
break-up
They played less of a role in initiating the break-up
Implications
People do indeed recover from a blow that beforehand seems crushing.
Recovery from a romantic break-up happens more quickly than we think it will.
Completing
Course Evaluations
Your opinion and feedback matter!
I will change the course in the future based on student feedback, I promise.
Deadline extended to Tuesday Nov 29
Turn in paper copy next week at beginning of class
Research Paper
Introduction: importance of topic, specific research questions or hypotheses
Literature review: review literature on your topic
Proposal: propose a study (or studies) to address your question; needs to be tailored
to YOUR question.
# of references: vary depending on topic (8 minimum)
Important Tips
Do not pick a method until you have a specific research question or hypothesis
Write out your questions/hypothesis
What needs to be done to answer that question?
Make yourself answer this question: how does my method allow me to answer my
research question or test my hypothesis?
Additional Questions?
now is your chance :)
Plan for Today
Part 1: Divorce and non-marital break-ups
Part 2: Being single
Being Single in Internet Age
What is your relationship status?
For the first time in western society,
the number of single people outnumbers people in a relationship.
Canadian population is 52% single (single, separated/divorced, and widowed) versus
48% coupled (common-law and married)
(Statistics Canada, 2016).
Meta-analysis of 58 studies
42 culturally diverse nations
(N = 59,000)
Conclusion: Married individuals
tend to report greater well-being
compared to single individuals.
Why?
1. Social support
1. Social stigma
Single people perceive less social support
Even though, compared to coupled individuals, single people have:
More friends
Spend more time with friends and family
Better quality relationships with friends and family
Think about your single experiences (current or past). Do/did you feel treated unfairly
because of your single status?
Definition: stigmatizing of adults who are single
Not as commonly recognized as other isms (e.g., racism)
Nonviolent, softer form of bigotry
Not often recognized, and when it is pointed out, it is often regarded as legitimate.
1,000 undergraduates listed characteristics of people who were married (one
condition) or single (other)
Married: seen as mature, stable, honest, happy, kind and loving
Single: seen as immature, insecure, self-centered, unhappy, lonely, and ugly (but also
independent)
Caring, kind and giving (50% for married, 2% for singles)
Participants read vignettes about
Single people
People in romantic relationship
How do people perceive a vignette character that is single versus coupled?
Miserable and lonely
Warm and caring
Single men paid less than married men even with similar age and comparable work
experience
Housing discrimination: rental agents more likely to choose a married couple (60%)
over a cohabiting couple (23%) or pair of friends (17%)
Adults asked to list any groups to which they belonged that might be targets of
negative stereotypes or discrimination
Only 4% of singles listed singles as a category
Contrasted with 100% of gay people, 90% of obese people, 86% of African Americans,
and 72% of women
Can single people be as happy as those who are in a relationship?
187 undergraduate students
4,024 nationally representative individuals in New Zealand
Completed measures of
Relationship status
Health/well-being
Avoidance social goals
Single women lead lonely, depressing, and incomplete lives. Their unhappiness
increases exponentially with each passing birthday, because past a certain age a
woman is used up. All women are desperate to marry or remarry because marriage
is their only real chance for security and happiness.
- excerpt from: Flying solo: Single women in midlife
Fear of Being Single
Fear of Being Single
Study 1
Relationship Dependence
Study 2
Initiating Break-Ups
Study 3
Romantic Interest (Responsiveness)
Study 4
Romantic Interest (Attractiveness)
There are lots of single people out there!
Singles are stigmatized and discriminated against.
Singles can be just as happy as people who are coupled.
The fear of being single can lead people to be less selective on the dating market.
We need more research on single people.
Week 11
Wednesday, November 21, 2018 12:37 PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Psychology 327
Plan for Today
Part 1: Divorce and non-marital break-ups
Part 2: Being single
Questions
Why do so many marriages end up in divorce?
Do people ever stay in relationships in which they are not happy because they dont
want to hurt their partner?
Are break-ups as devastating as we think they will be?
Are some people afraid of being single?
Increased since mid-1930s
Peaked in 1980
Then started to decrease
50% of marriages (in U.S.) will end in separation or divorce
Why Is the Divorce Rate So High?
1. Our expectations are too high.
2. More women work outside the home.
3. Gender roles are changing.
4. Western culture is becoming more individualistic.
5. Divorce is less shameful and easier to obtain.
6. We have increased exposure to divorce.
1. Our Expectations are Too High
People may expect more out of marriage than they used to.
People are pursuing marriage as a path to personal fulfillment and expect partner to
fulfill many roles.
Many people feel dissatisfied when their relationships fall short of these unrealistic
expectations.
Today, we turn to one person to provide what an entire village once did: a sense of
grounding, meaning, and continuity. At the same time, we expect our committed
relationships to be romantic as well as emotionally and sexually fulfilling.
Esther Perel (2007)
2. More Women Work Outside the Home
Women have economic freedom to leave dissatisfying relationships.
Spouses report more conflict between work and family, and the more hours a wife
works outside the home, the lower quality of marriage.
Amount of time spouses spend together has declined.
Time Spent with Spouse
3. Gender Roles are Changing
Women are becoming more assertive and self-reliant.
Partners in many marriages are dividing household responsibilities more equitably.
Different effects on men (getting less satisfied) and women (getting more satisfied).
Housework and Marital Satisfaction
4. Western Culture is Becoming More Individualistic
Less tied to communities and less likely to live near extended family
This means less social support and companionship which has implications
Ask more of our spouse than we did in the past
Less affected by community norms that might discourage them from divorce
Divorce Rates around the World
Our shared perceptions of divorce are a lot less negative.
Less likely to work hard to rescue a faltering relationship when divorce seems like an
easier alternative.
There are more children of divorce: Children who experience the divorce of their
parents are more likely to divorce themselves when they become adults.
More of us have friends who are divorced: When others in our social network divorce,
we’re more likely to do so too.
Why Is the Divorce Rate So High?
1.
Our expectations are too high.
2.
More women work outside the home.
3.
Gender roles are changing.
4.
Western culture is becoming more individualistic.
5.
Divorce is less shameful and easier to obtain.
6.
We have increased exposure to divorce.
When people were asked what had caused their divorces, here is what they said:
Only rarely did people consider broader influences, such as income and education, to
have been important.
Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation model (VSA)
Enduring Vulnerabilities
Adverse family experiences, poor education, maladaptive traits
Stressful events
E.g., unemployment, life transitions, illness, childbirth
Adaptive Processes
Ways couples deal with stress, conflict e.g., communication styles, stress
management
PAIR Project
Processes of Adaptation in Intimate Relationships
Began in 1981, tracked 168 couples over 13 years
< 50% are still married
Tested three explanations for high rates of divorce
Enduring Dynamics
Spouses bring problems, incompatibilities, and vulnerabilities that surfaced
during their courtship.
Marriages that are headed for divorce are weaker than others from their very
beginning.
Disillusionment
Couples typically begin their marriages with unrealistically positive views of their
relationship
Both the enduring dynamics and disillusionment models predicted divorce
The disillusionment model was the best predictor of divorce
Couples that experienced the steepest declines in positive affect and passion at
greatest risk
The Early Years of Marriage Project
This project has been following 174 white couples and 199 black couples since they
married in 1986.
Sixteen years later, most of the black couples (55%) had divorced, compared to a third
(36%) of the white couples.
Results explained in terms of income inequality
The Reality for Low SES Couples
Low socioeconomic status presents challenges that make life and relationships more
difficult.
Few resources
Health difficulties
Lower levels of education
Little free time
Stress from these general problems spills over to the relationship.
Health outcomes
Second most stressful life event (second only to death of spouse)
Decreases physical well-being
Social networks
Lose about half of social network
But more time with family and friends
Economic resources
Loss of joint income
Mens standard of living often increases, womens decreases
Dissolution leads to better outcomes if poor quality relationship
Nonmarital Romantic Relationship Breakups
Typical Process of Breaking Up
When Do People End Romantic Relationships?
Meta-Analysis of Non-Marital Break-Ups
Predictors with a Large Effect Size
Predictors with a Medium Effect Size
Predictors with a Small Effect Size
Break-Up Decisions: A Story of the Self
Recruited participants in relationships through M-Turk
Initial N = 4106, age = 26, relationship length = 22 months
Weekly emails: Are you still with your partner?
Final N = 1281, responded for an average of 10 weeks. 14% broke up
Results
What About?
Study 2: Replication Study
Recruited participants currently thinking about breaking up, online
Initial N = 1037
Two month follow-up: Are you still with your partner?
Final N = 500. 29% broke up
Results
Implications
People will stay in unfulfilling relationships for the partners sake
May help to ride out temporary rough patches
May also act as a barrier to dissolving chronically unfulfilling relationships
Aftermath of Break-Ups
For those who are broken up with without warning, the results can be devastating.
For leavers
Sense of happiness, relief, and freedom
Opportunity to find inner strength and renewed meaning in life
Guilt, regret, and sometimes shame over hurting ones partner
Diary Study of Break-Ups
58 undergrads who ended a close relationship (4+ months) in past 2 weeks
Beeped multiple times a day for 27 days
Four emotions: Love, sadness, anger, relief
Are break-ups as awful as people think they will be?
Affective Forecasting Study
69 undergraduate students in relationships
17-19 years old
9-month longitudinal study, 4 time points
38% broke up within first 6-months, analyses focus on them
Measures
Actual distress (people who broke up, week 0, 2, 6, 10)
In general, I am pretty happy these days.
I am extremely upset that my relationship ended.
Predicted distress (those in reln., week 0, 2, 6, 10)
If your relationship were to end in the next two weeks, how much would you
agree with those two statements.
Results
Who Made More Errors?
People overpredicted their distress when:
they reported being more in love at the session immediately preceding the break-up
they felt it was less likely they would enter into a new relationship at session before
break-up
They played less of a role in initiating the break-up
Implications
People do indeed recover from a blow that beforehand seems crushing.
Recovery from a romantic break-up happens more quickly than we think it will.
Completing
Course Evaluations
Your opinion and feedback matter!
I will change the course in the future based on student feedback, I promise.
Deadline extended to Tuesday Nov 29
Turn in paper copy next week at beginning of class
Research Paper
Introduction: importance of topic, specific research questions or hypotheses
Literature review: review literature on your topic
Proposal: propose a study (or studies) to address your question; needs to be tailored
to YOUR question.
# of references: vary depending on topic (8 minimum)
Important Tips
Do not pick a method until you have a specific research question or hypothesis
Write out your questions/hypothesis
What needs to be done to answer that question?
Make yourself answer this question: how does my method allow me to answer my
research question or test my hypothesis?
Additional Questions?
now is your chance :)
Plan for Today
Part 1: Divorce and non-marital break-ups
Part 2: Being single
Being Single in Internet Age
What is your relationship status?
For the first time in western society,
the number of single people outnumbers people in a relationship.
Canadian population is 52% single (single, separated/divorced, and widowed) versus
48% coupled (common-law and married)
(Statistics Canada, 2016).
Meta-analysis of 58 studies
42 culturally diverse nations
(N = 59,000)
Conclusion: Married individuals
tend to report greater well-being
compared to single individuals.
Why?
1. Social support
1. Social stigma
Single people perceive less social support
Even though, compared to coupled individuals, single people have:
More friends
Spend more time with friends and family
Better quality relationships with friends and family
Think about your single experiences (current or past). Do/did you feel treated unfairly
because of your single status?
Definition: stigmatizing of adults who are single
Not as commonly recognized as other isms (e.g., racism)
Nonviolent, softer form of bigotry
Not often recognized, and when it is pointed out, it is often regarded as legitimate.
1,000 undergraduates listed characteristics of people who were married (one
condition) or single (other)
Married: seen as mature, stable, honest, happy, kind and loving
Single: seen as immature, insecure, self-centered, unhappy, lonely, and ugly (but also
independent)
Caring, kind and giving (50% for married, 2% for singles)
Participants read vignettes about
Single people
People in romantic relationship
How do people perceive a vignette character that is single versus coupled?
Miserable and lonely
Warm and caring
Single men paid less than married men even with similar age and comparable work
experience
Housing discrimination: rental agents more likely to choose a married couple (60%)
over a cohabiting couple (23%) or pair of friends (17%)
Adults asked to list any groups to which they belonged that might be targets of
negative stereotypes or discrimination
Only 4% of singles listed singles as a category
Contrasted with 100% of gay people, 90% of obese people, 86% of African Americans,
and 72% of women
Can single people be as happy as those who are in a relationship?
187 undergraduate students
4,024 nationally representative individuals in New Zealand
Completed measures of
Relationship status
Health/well-being
Avoidance social goals
Single women lead lonely, depressing, and incomplete lives. Their unhappiness
increases exponentially with each passing birthday, because past a certain age a
woman is used up. All women are desperate to marry or remarry because marriage
is their only real chance for security and happiness.
- excerpt from: Flying solo: Single women in midlife
Fear of Being Single
Fear of Being Single
Study 1
Relationship Dependence
Study 2
Initiating Break-Ups
Study 3
Romantic Interest (Responsiveness)
Study 4
Romantic Interest (Attractiveness)
There are lots of single people out there!
Singles are stigmatized and discriminated against.
Singles can be just as happy as people who are coupled.
The fear of being single can lead people to be less selective on the dating market.
We need more research on single people.
Week 11
Wednesday, November 21, 2018 12:37 PM
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