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Lecture 9

PSY328H5 Lecture 9: Lecture 9
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5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY328H5
Professor
Will Huggon

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Lecture 9 - Risk Assessment
Risk Assessment- the process of identifying and studying hazards to reduce the probability of
their occurrencehow do we define violence? - physical only? punch? what if you miss, is that
still violence? yes = intention physical damage vs. psychological damage - secretly videotaping,
stalking, threatening - feel unsafe, anxious
- how victim responds!!! - if bobby grabbed an understanding woman, nothing would have
happened actual harm vs. intent - CASE - man studied crime & shot wife 3x head 1x chest - she
lived = paralyzed = 5yrs jail - if dead = life
- intention (murder) was not as important as what happened in the endinstrumental violence -
committed to meet another goal - means to an ends - shoot to cover up a crime, collect insurance
etc. reactive violence - lose temper and lash out - most common cause for violent crime
- who is more dangerous? guy grabs kitchen knife & stabs wife 30x or assassin who sneaks in
and shoots once & leaves
- even though he does it nicely, hit man will do it again = more dangerous while husband won't
do it againsexual vs. non-sexual - some sexual assaults have little to do with sex, put with
power and humiliation while other crimes,
such as arson, look like they have nothing to do with sex but can be very sexual - sexual doesn't
predict violence as well as non-sexual
- identify persons likely to commit violence and develop interventions to reduce risk- predicting
future behaviour is difficult - best indicator is past behaviour - even that isn't good - fundamental
attribution error - only 10% of crime is violent crime - 3% of VC is homicide, 10% rape - actual
violent crime may be 9x higher than reported- to predict is to make a statement about the
likelihood of a future event of behaviour- risk refers to a condition that exists as a function of
the presence of someone/something perceived as dangerous
Dangerousnesscase by case- look at the person, what they did & would they do it again
vague- what will they do? what exactly does dangerous mean stable trait- fundamental
bias - dangerousness is considered trait predicts violence- likely to be violent again and that's it
Purpose of Risk Assessment - why measure risk?
Risk Assessmentempirical data- get tons of info from many sources - see sim &
diffspecific- what's the context where they're likely to commit a crime changes over
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time- looks at the current situation - can't keep in jail foreverprevents violence- good guy,
bad drunk -prevent it by monitoring, drug tests
to protect society and the person from harming themselves and others to inform decisions
regarding:
threats posed by an individual to others - what's the likelihood they are a threat and who are they
a threat to (target) ? treatment options - we want to help, prevent, make life better not punish
- intensity: - hospitalized every day? halfway house with curfew? ankle bracelet? etc.- modality:
- chemically castrate sexual offenders? cognitive behaviour therapy? HOW do we treat -
targeting: - person is violent because of alcohol so let's treat alcohol problems
justice decisions - bail? or too dangerous - Long Time Offender = watch up to 10 years after
release - child molesters sentencing and dispositional planningsupervision and case planning -
someone works with them to assure they aren't putting themselves is a risky situation discharge
from custody
Risk Markers 1. Gender
- 90% of violent crime is done by men - traditionally and evolutionary because men are more
violent 2. Age
- age is inversely related to risk - violent crime peaks at 15, goes down by 30 and little by 40s -
correlates with testosterone 3. Previous antisocial and criminal behaviour
- not all people with antisocial personality disorder are psychopaths, but many psychopaths have
ASPD- lying, deceit, lack of remorse, empathy and guilt, cheating, history of irresponsibility,
narcissism, can be violent- ASPD not given before 18, instead given childhood diagnosis of
conduct disorder- majority of those with CD will develop ASPD and majority of those with
ASPD have a retroactive diagnosis of CD- CD that begins in adolescence will most likely not
be involved in crime by the time they are 30 - depending on their life- CD that begins before 5
= behaviour that will follow them throughout their life > severe or ^ fell in with the wrong crowd
4. Conditional release - you don't have to go to jail if you follow this list and conditions (don't
drink, associate with felons etc) Parole - you have been in jail but have been let out early to serve
the last of your sentence in the worldProbation - given a chance, screwed up and violated parole
= lack of impulse control
5. Delinquency- those with a history of maladjustment - suspended from school, detention,
expelled, don't listen to authority etc.
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Description
Lecture 9 Risk Assessment Risk Assessment the process of identifying and studying hazards to reduce the probability of their occurrence how do we define violence? physical only? punch? what if you miss, is that still violence? yes = intention physical damage vs. psychological damage secretly videotaping, stalking, threatening feel unsafe, anxious how victim responds!!! if bobby grabbed an understanding woman, nothing would have happened actual harm vs. intent CASE man studied crime shot wife 3x head 1x chest she lived = paralyzed = 5yrs jail if dead = life intention (murder) was not as important as what happened in the end instrumental violence committed to meet another goal means to an ends shoot to cover up a crime, collect insurance etc. reactive violence lose temper and lash out most common cause for violent crime who is more dangerous? guy grabs kitchen knife stabs wife 30x or assassin who sneaks in and shoots once leaves even though he does it nicely, hit man will do it again = more dangerous while husband wont do it again sexual vs. nonsexual some sexual assaults have little to do with sex, put with power and humiliation while other crimes, such as arson, look like they have nothing to do with sex but can be very sexual sexual doesnt predict violence as well as nonsexual identify persons likely to commit violence and develop interventions to reduce risk predicting future behaviour is difficult best indicator is past behaviour even that isnt good fundamental attribution error only 10 of crime is violent crime 3 of VC is homicide, 10 rape actual violent crime may be 9x higher than reported to predict is to make a statement about the likelihood of a future event of behaviour risk refers to a condition that exists as a function of the presence of someonesomething perceived as dangerous Dangerousness case by case look at the person, what they did would they do it again vague what will they do? what exactly does dangerous mean stable trait fundamental bias dangerousness is considered trait predicts violence likely to be violent again and thats it Purpose of Risk Assessment why measure risk? Risk Assessment empirical data get tons of info from many sources see sim diff specific whats the context where theyre likely to commit a crime changes over
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