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Lecture 3

PSY341H5 Lecture Notes - Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Behavior Management, Cerebral Palsy
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY341H5
Professor
Aitken Madison

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Lecture 3: Intellectual Disability
Thursday, January 4, 2018
11:31 AM
Outline
o Quick review
o Discuss assignment
o Unanswered questions
o Lecture + discussion part 1: description + diagnosis
o Lecture + discussion part 2: causes +interventions
o Write down + submit any unanswered questions
Quick Review
o Research
Importance of scientific approach to ensure conclusions are sound + properly interpreted
Research addresses questions related to:
Epidemiology
Correlates, risks + cause
Moderating + mediating variables
Outcomes
Intervention
o Assessment, Diagnosis
Multi-method assessment
Clinical interviewing
Observation
Rating scales
Psychological testing
Diagnostic systems - DSM-5
o Treatment Approaches
Psychodynamic
Behavioural
Cognitive
Client-centered
Family
Biological/medical
Combined
Unanswered Questions from last Week
o Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)
Divided
Neg valence systems
Pos valence systems
Cognitive systems
Social processes
Arousal + regulatory Systems
Lecture + Discussion Part 1: Description + Diagnosis
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Objectives
o What is an intellectual disability?
o What assessment approaches are used to diagnose an intellectual disability?
o What developmental course + outcomes are associated with intellectual disability?
Neurodevelopmental Disorders
o All disorders that are going to be talked about pre-midterm
o Onset in developmental period
Not firm cut-off in DSM - generally think cut-off of 18
o May manifest early in dev (e.g., before school age)
o Impairments in personal, social, academic, or occupational functioning (specific or global)
Global
Ex more severe intellectual disability
o Often co-occur
o Include:
Intellectual disability (ID)
Autism-spectrum disorder
Communication + learning disorder
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
o Prevalence
What percentage of indivs w/ intellectual disability (ID)?
1%
Fairly low incidence rate
Meta-analysis of 52 studies from 1980 to 2009 (Maulik et al., 2011)
10.37/1000 = 0.0104 ~1.04%
Demographic differences in prevalence
Boys > girls (1.6:1)
Mild ID:
May reflect economic disadv, ident (could reflect an ident bias perhaps)
More prevalent in children of lower SES
More prevalent in children from minority groups
Intellectual Disability
o What is ID?
"intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder) is:
A disorder w/ onset during the developmental period that includes both intellectual +
adaptive functioning deficits in conceptual, social, + practical domains"
o History of Intellectual Disability in Canada
1876
In Orillia - The Orillia Asylum
Institutionalization mov continued for many yrs
1955
Organizations started to occur to help this mov away from institutionalizing indivs w/
disabilities + integrate them into communities in more meaningful + appropriate way
Ex Community Living
1972
Alberta was particularly problematic in terms of treatment of these indivs
1985
Provided a lot more protection of indivs w/ disabilities
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Since then have continued to improve indivs rights, access, and?
Video: "Let's Talk about Intellectual Disabilities"
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0XXqr_ZSsMg
o DSM-5 Criteria
Deficits required in 2 broad areas:
Core areas:
1: intellectual functions
2: adaptive functioning
With onset during the developmental period
Generally childhood, adolescence -- but no hard cut-off/limit
o Assessing Intellectual Functioning
Standardized assessments result in an intelligence quotient (IQ) - measures general
intellectual functioning
E.g., WISC-V
Most widely used in CN
Children's' version, there is an adolescence
But it's typically the age range indivs get diagnosed
Full-scale IQ --> includes 5 domains
Visual spatial
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Description
Lecture 3: Intellectual Disability Thursday, January 4, 2018 11:31 AM Outline o Quick review o Discuss assignment o Unanswered questions o Lecture + discussion part 1: description + diagnosis o Lecture + discussion part 2: causes +interventions o Write down + submit any unanswered questions Quick Review o Research Importance of scientific approach to ensure conclusions are sound + properly interpreted Research addresses questions related to: Epidemiology Correlates, risks + cause Moderating + mediating variables Outcomes Intervention o Assessment, Diagnosis Multi-method assessment Clinical interviewing Observation Rating scales Psychological testing Diagnostic systems - DSM-5 o Treatment Approaches Psychodynamic Behavioural Cognitive Client-centered Family Biological/medical Combined Unanswered Questions from last Week o Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Divided Neg valence systems Pos valence systems Cognitive systems Social processes Arousal + regulatory Systems Lecture + Discussion Part 1: Description + Diagnosis Objectives o What is an intellectual disability? o What assessment approaches are used to diagnose an intellectual disability? o What developmental course + outcomes are associated with intellectual disability? Neurodevelopmental Disorders o All disorders that are going to be talked about pre-midterm o Onset in developmental period Not firm cut-off in DSM - generally think cut-off of 18 o May manifest early in dev (e.g., before school age) o Impairments in personal, social, academic, or occupational functioning (specific or global) Global Ex more severe intellectual disability o Often co-occur o Include: Intellectual disability (ID) Autism-spectrum disorder Communication + learning disorder Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder o Prevalence What percentage of indivs w/ intellectual disability (ID)? 1% Fairly low incidence rate Meta-analysis of 52 studies from 1980 to 2009 (Maulik et al., 2011) 10.37/1000 = 0.0104 ~1.04% Demographic differences in prevalence Boys > girls (1.6:1) Mild ID: May reflect economic disadv, ident (could reflect an ident bias perhaps) More prevalent in children of lower SES More prevalent in children from minority groups Intellectual Disability o What is ID? "intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder) is: A disorder w/ onset during the developmental period that includes both intellectual + adaptive functioning deficits in conceptual, social, + practical domains" o History of Intellectual Disability in Canada 1876 In Orillia - The Orillia Asylum Institutionalization mov continued for many yrs 1955 Organizations started to occur to help this mov away from institutionalizing indivs w/ disabilities + integrate them into communities in more meaningful + appropriate way Ex Community Living 1972 Alberta was particularly problematic in terms of treatment of these indivs 1985 Provided a lot more protection of indivs w/ disabilities Since then have continued to improve indivs rights, access, and? Video: "Let's Talk about Intellectual Disabilities" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0XXqr_ZSsMg o DSM-5 Criteria Deficits required in 2 broad areas: Core areas: 1: intellectual functions 2: adaptive functioning With onset during the developmental period Generally childhood, adolescence -- but no hard cut-off/limit o Assessing Intellectual Functioning Standardized assessments result in an intelligence quotient (IQ) - measures general intellectual functioning E.g., WISC-V Most widely used in CN Children's' version, there is an adolescence But it's typically the age range indivs get diagnosed Full-scale IQ --> includes 5 domains Visual spatial Fluid reasoning Matrix analogy Ex pattern, identify the next piece/missing piece Verbal comprehension Describe meaning of word --> concrete reasoning What 2 things might have in common --> abstract reasoning Working mem Repeat list of #s forwards + backwards Processing speed h/ quickly able to do simple, low demand task Ex quickly looking over series of shape + identifying if there are any matches Interpreting WISC-V IQ Scores
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