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Lecture 8

PSY341H5 Lecture 8: Bipolar disorder

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Aitken Madison

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Bipolar disorder Require the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic (less severe than manic) episodes o Period of distinct abnormally elevated or irritable mood o Increase in energy and goaldirected activity May or may not also experience episodes of major depression DSM 5 Criteria o Manic Episode Abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased activity or energy, lasting at least 1 week and present most of the day, nearly every day. 3 (+) of the following symptoms (4 if the mood is only irritable): Inflated selfesteem or grandiosity. o Delusions of invincibility can happen Decreased need for sleep. More talkative than usual. o Rapid talking Flight of ideasthoughts racing. Distractibility. Increase in goaldirected activity (i.e. staying up all night painting, increase in sexual behavior) or psychomotor agitation (restlessness, on edge). Excessive involvement in activities that have a high potential for painful consequences. (i.e. gambling, ignoring inhibitory cues) o Hypomanic episodes Same criteria as a manic episode, except: Shorter duration (4 days vs. 1 week) The episode is not severe enough to cause impairment or require hospitalization The bipolar disorders o Bipolar I disorder 1+ manic episodes (even if they didnt have depression) May experience hypomanic episodes and episodes of major depression Really high mood o Bipolar II Disorder 1+ Hypomanic episodes (never had manic episode) One or more episodes of MDD Relatively high mood and low mood o Cyclothymic Disorder Hypomanic symptoms Depressive symptoms (neither meet full criteria for an episode) Moderately high and moderately low moods Prevalence of Bipolar disorders o Rare in children o 0.5 2.5 worldwide (in youth age 721) o Equally common in boys and girls o Rates of diagnosis increased sharply in the 1990s and 2000s Concerns about overdiagnosis Page 1 of 3
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