PSY345H5 Lecture Notes - Individualized Education Program, Traumatic Brain Injury, Intellectual Disability

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12 Apr 2013
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Exceptionality: Chapter Two
Goal of education: full participation for everyone, regardless of race, cultural
backgrounds etc.
Early special education programs: few educational programs were separate from
public schools, established mainly for children that were described as slow learners
or had hearing/sight loss. Educational services were granted to children with mild
emotional disorders but mental hospitals continued to be the only alternative for
children with severe emotional disorders. Special school vs. general education
emerged as an issue. Parents wanted their disabled kids to be educated in a school
setting where social interaction was promoted with other ‘typical’ kids.
Resulted in the development of a new modelMainstreaming where a child
could remain in the general class program for the majority of the school day and
receive special education when and where it was needed
U.S Supreme Court reaffirmed education as a right & not a privilege. The court
ruled that education must be made available to everyone on an equal basis.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [IDEA]
The Education for All Handicapped Children Act- free and appropriate
public education to 4 million U.S disabled school students between ages 6-
Provisions for an individualized education program, safeguards to protect
rights of students and their parents, non-discriminatory & multidisciplinary
assessment and education with non-disabled peers to the max extent [least
restrictive environment]
Public Law 99-457
Established a program for infants and toddlers up through 2 years old. They
became eligible for services that included a multidisciplinary assessment and an
individualized family service plan [IFSP]
Congress renamed Education for All Handicapped Children [Public Law 94-142]
Individuals with Disabilities Act [IDEA]. The purpose of name change was to
reflect ‘people first’ language and to promote the term ‘disabilities’ instead of
Zero inclusion principle- no person with a disability can be rejected for a service
regardless of nature & extent of disabling condition.
Special Education – specially designed instruction provided at no cost for parents
in all settings [classrooms, home, hospitals, institutions]. It includes related
services which are necessary to ensure disabled students benefit from their
educational experience and includes transportation, speech pathology etc.
Criteria to be eligible for special education
1. The student must be identified as having one of the disability conditions
identified in federal law or a corresponding condition [intellectual
disabilities, hearing impairments, language impairments]; Autism (childhood
disorder marked by extreme withdrawal, self-stimulation, intellectual
deficits & language disorders); Traumatic Brain Injury (tearing of nerve
fibres causing brain stem trauma & swelling)
2. Student’s demonstrated need for specialized instruction and related services
to get appropriate education.
Provisions of IDEA:
1. All disabled students are entitled to a free and appropriate public education
designed to meet their unique needs + prepare them for employment and
independent living
2. Parents have the right to be involved in decisions regarding their children’s
special education program
3. Schools must use non-discriminatory and multidisciplinary assessment in
determining children’s educational needs
4. Every student must have an individualized educational program (IEP)
5. Every student has the right to receive their education with nondisabled peers
to the max extent appropriate
#Students with disabilities are entitled to Free and Appropriate Public Education
Non-discriminatory + Multidisciplinary Assessment
- Students to be tested in their native language, whenever possible
- Use of evaluation procedures selected & administered to prevent
cultural/racial discrimination
- Validation of assessment tools for the purpose they are being used for
- Assessment must be made by a team of professionals, using several pieces
of info to formulate a placement decision
Parental Safeguards & Involvement
- To give consent in writing before child is assessed
- To give consent in writing as to the educational setting where child will
receive special education
- To request separate individual assessment if parents believe school’s
assessment is inappropriate
- To request a copy of child’s educational record
Intention of these safeguards: to create an opportunity for parents to be more
involved in decisions regarding child’s educational program + to protect student
and family from decisions that could affect child’s education
Individualized Educational Program (IEP)
- Framework for delivering free and appropriate education to every eligible
disabled student
- No two IEPs should be the same