PSY362H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Sphex, Nikolaas Tinbergen, Fixed Action Pattern

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Lecture 5 Concept Formation
February 9th, 2017
The Gavagi Problem
A atie speaker of a uko laguage ill assoiate the ord gaagai to a rait
A Eglish speaker a traslate this as a rait
For instance, if a child points to the rabbit ad sas look its a gaagai the the Eglish speaker
can translate and understand that it is a rabbit
How would you define a concept?
A oept is iforatio aout a speifi ariale
Discrimination and Stimulation Control
Fixed action pattern: Requires etire ods respose ad is thus ore ople
Sign Stimuli
A stimulus that triggers a fixed action pattern
When we see the color red, we think of a bull
A lot of animals are attracted to the color red
A sign stimulus for a dog is a baby wearing large sunglasses
o Dog may end up barking and biting
A sign stimulus for a beetle is a beer bottle, particularly a stubby Australian beer bottle
Proximate mechanism: What in the immediate environment is leading to the behavior?
Cause 1: for red belly of the sticklebacks: Color triggers aggressive behavior for females to
indicate to males that they are not welcome around their nest
Cause 2: By chasing away the male, you are decreasing chance for second male to fertilize the
eggs
Remember to think of the big picture when asked about proximate mechanism
o Genetic factors, etc
Ultimate mechanism: What caused that behavior to evolve?
Digger Wasps: Landmark Discrimination
Niko Tinbergen is best known for work on digger wasps
The first experiment
o Digger wasp was found, and a landmark was placed around its nest (with pinecones)
o Tinbergen then moved the landmark to an adjacent spot while the wasp was away, in a
circular arrangement
o The wasp came back and went to the newly landmarked region, not the original nest
spot
A second experiment was conducted
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Document Summary

How would you define a concept: a (cid:858)(cid:272)o(cid:374)(cid:272)ept(cid:859) is i(cid:374)for(cid:373)atio(cid:374) a(cid:271)out a spe(cid:272)ifi(cid:272) (cid:448)aria(cid:271)le. Discrimination and stimulation control: fixed action pattern: requires e(cid:374)tire (cid:271)od(cid:455)(cid:859)s respo(cid:374)se a(cid:374)d is thus (cid:373)ore (cid:272)o(cid:373)ple(cid:454) Imprinting is rapid learning: new salmon will spawn when they first hatch, then leave years later for migration, however, it was found that they always came back to their original spawning location. Imm: less equivalent of medial prefrontal cortex: neural circuit will become useless if imprinting does not take place between the window. Imprinting must take place between 13-16 hr window. Delayed matching to a sample: a sample is shown, then after a short delay, two samples are shown, must distinguish which one is correct between the two. Rule learning in honey bees: animals learn relationships between objects. In an experiment, we can use the delayed matching or delayed non matching sample: training: maze with blue and yellow ends.

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