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Lecture 4

PSY384H5 Lecture 4: Lecture 4

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Elizabeth Johnson

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Lecture 4 th Thursday January 26 Prosody • melody and rhythm of language (mainly in vowels) • Emotional Prosody (as a cue to meaning): o I love this freaking class! (happy intonation) o I love this freaking class. (sarcastically) First thing human fetus hears--> prosody • Low pass filter (cut out all high frequencies) • getting fundamental frequency information (low) • getting F1 and F2 information Pitch • Dependent on tension of vocal cords (high pitch fast vibration) o Muscular flaps in larynx • Air comes up from lungs vocal cords blown apart and sucked back together • All languages use pitch to cause changes in intonation • Some languages difference in intonation of certain word can change the meaning of the word all together o Ex. “ma” in Cantonese either means mother in law or a horse 2 forces responsible for pulling vocal cords back together 1. Bernouli effect 2. Elasticity of vocal cords 3 ways to determine pitch visually inspecting the wave 1. Vertical striation (glottal pulses) in spectrograms 2. Pitch tracking 3. Calculating period of cycle from spectrogram ***Question: Why is increased loudness associated with pushing more air out of lungs? Answer: Bigger movements of the vocal cords louder sound • With increase in subglottal air pressure see increase in pitch unless speaker actively compensates • Increase in subglottal air pressure causes vocal cords to open/close quickly as a result of heightened Bernouli effect • When speaker gets to end of sentence, fundamental frequency tends to drop naturally with intensity • Increase vocal fold tension/subglottal pressure increase in fundamental frequency ***Question: Do we always see a decrease in Fundamental frequency with a decrease in subglottal pressure? Answer: No- Example: Question intonation (must stretch out vocal cords to work against natural decrease in frequency in the end) Interplay between loudness and pitch of human vocalization gets more complicated when you note vocal fold tensionimpacts subglottal tension Prosody: melody and rhythm of language • Stress(emphasis on certain syllables) and intonation interplay of vocal fold tension, subglottal pressure and duration of consonant/vowel articulations • Al languages use pitch to cause change in intonation
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