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Lecture 4

PSY384H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Vocal Folds, Fundamental Frequency, Spectrogram

3 pages45 viewsFall 2014

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY384H5
Professor
Elizabeth Johnson
Lecture
4

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Lecture 4
Thursday January 26th
Prosody
melody and rhythm of language (mainly in vowels)
Emotional Prosody (as a cue to meaning):
oI love this freaking class! (happy intonation)
oI love this freaking class. (sarcastically)
First thing human fetus hears--> prosody
Low pass filter (cut out all high frequencies)
getting fundamental frequency information (low)
getting F1 and F2 information
Pitch
Dependent on tension of vocal cords (high pitch fast vibration)
oMuscular flaps in larynx
Air comes up from lungs vocal cords blown apart and sucked back together
All languages use pitch to cause changes in intonation
Some languages difference in intonation of certain word can change the meaning of the
word all together
oEx. “ma” in Cantonese either means mother in law or a horse
2 forces responsible for pulling vocal cords back together
1. Bernouli effect
2. Elasticity of vocal cords
3 ways to determine pitch visually inspecting the wave
1. Vertical striation (glottal pulses) in spectrograms
2. Pitch tracking
3. Calculating period of cycle from spectrogram
***Question: Why is increased loudness associated with pushing more air out of lungs?
Answer: Bigger movements of the vocal cords louder sound
With increase in subglottal air pressure see increase in pitch unless speaker actively
compensates
Increase in subglottal air pressure causes vocal cords to open/close quickly as a result
of heightened Bernouli effect
When speaker gets to end of sentence, fundamental frequency tends to drop naturally
with intensity
Increase vocal fold tension/subglottal pressure increase in fundamental frequency
***Question: Do we always see a decrease in Fundamental frequency with a decrease in
subglottal pressure?
Answer: No- Example: Question intonation (must stretch out vocal cords to work against
natural decrease in frequency in the end)
Interplay between loudness and pitch of human vocalization gets more complicated when you
note vocal fold tensionimpacts subglottal tension
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