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Lecture 15

Detailed Lecture 15 Notes - Treatment of Psychological Disorders

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Ayesha Khan

Chapter 15 Lecture Notes Treatment of Psychological Disorders Lecture Preview • Who seeks psychotherapy and who benefits from it? • Describe and evaluate the effectiveness of insight therapies and behavioural therapies • Explore group and family therapies • Discuss whether psychotherapy is effective • Identify biological treatments for psychological problems Psychotherapy • Is a very general term • Who goes to therapy? • More women go to psychotherapy and counseling than men • Who practices therapy? • Clinical psychologists  goes through an undergrad, then masters in psychology and PhD in clinical psychological • Psychiatrists  has a medical training background; has the ability to prescribe medications • Mental health counselors, Clinical social workers  not regulated by the government, so you don’t know how much education they had • Who benefits most from therapy? • Patients with some anxiety often do better • A little bit of anxiety is good • Patients who are better adjusted to begin with Psychoanalysis: The First Therapy • Sigmund Freud – believed abnormal behaviour was caused by unconscious feelings, thus the goal of psychotherapy was to make conscious these unconscious feelings • Six primary approaches: 1. Free association  The client/patient comes in and talks about whatever is on his/her mind  Ie. School, boyfriend, work, dreams  Patient is expression himself without censorship 2. Interpretation  The therapist will interpret this and formulate some type of theory and connections the dots 3. Dream analysis  This is where we start to expression our unconscious feelings  As a psychoanalysis, you want to see what is going on, dream analysis is a good way 4. Reduce Resistances  Attempts to avoid confrontation and anxiety associated with uncovering previously repressed thoughts, emotions, and impulses 5. Transference  Projecting intense, unrealistic feelings and expectations from the past onto the therapist 6. Working through  Confronting and resolving problems, conflicts, and ineffective coping responses in everyday life Neo-Freudian Psychoanalysis • Followers of Freud consider conscious, cultural, and interpersonal influences on behaviour, along with adopting a more positive approach. • Jung’s Analytic Psychology – focused on individuation, the integration of opposing aspects of the patients personality • You think of yourself into parts- what is the good, the bad in me; therefore individuation helps you find what your parts are • Amplification – patients and therapists expand on dream associations • If someone is experiencing a series of multiple dreams, you start to connect those dreams • Interpret the connections between those dreams • Prognostic dreams – dreams that foretell the future • Making a prognosis • Given all the information that I have about my client, can I make some sort of assumption of how they will behave in the future Critical Analysis of Psychodynamic Therapies • Many treatments are not scientifically sound: • Poor external validity – Freud and Jung had a limited population of wealthy, intelligent, successful people • External validity  the treatment I am using works for everyone; applies to the population at large • When we look at Freuds’ patients were very selective, they were Victorian, well-off women • Jung’s patients were also dimensional where they were selective by social position • Clinical sessions were never systematically examined and thus could not be replicated • We want to methodically examine a session • They relied on memories  memories are just reconstructions of the past • Relied heavily on memories from the patient’s past, yet recent evidence has called into question the validity of these memories • Research has shown that brief treatments are better than none, however, they do not work as well as other therapies (e.g., cognitive behavioural therapy) Humanistic-Existential Psychotherapy • Therapies that share an emphasis on the development of human potential and the belief that human nature is basically good • Humanistic • Masslow of hierarchy of needs • People by their nature want to achieve self-actualization and road blocks may occur • So what are the road blocks that get in the way for someone to achieve self-actualization • Existential • It takes a lot of hard work to reach self-actualization • There is going to be a lot of pain and struggle to get to the path to ultimately reach self-actualizaton • Both utilize a phenomenological approach • Therapists encounter patients in terms of the subjective phenomena (thoughts, feelings) they experience in the present • Focuses on the present • Person-centered therapy – centered on the patient’s goals and ways of solving problems • Carl Rogers (1902 - 1987) • The Client can choose the problem they want to resolve  giving ownership to the client • Therapists don’t tell the patient how to solve their problems, and patients can use their time however they choose • Therapists exhibit unconditional positive regard to elicit a more positive self-concept • Gestalt therapy – aims to integrate different, and sometimes opposing aspects of personality, into a unified sense of self • Experiential  in the present, and play out sceneros inorder to get a better understand of myself • Two-chair technique to promote self-awareness • Considered an experiential therapy because it recognizes the importance of awa
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