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Lecture

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100Y5
Professor
Ayesha Khan
Semester
Winter

Description
Motivation and Emotion – Lecture Motivation  Our behavior is a consequence of your motivation  Motivation drives you to participate in a specific type of behavior  Motivation refers to the moving force that energizes behavior o Direction or goal of motives  Motivation ultimately drive your behavior o Strength of motives  Motives reflect: o Biological needs o Psychosocial needs  Our motivation comes from our unconscious  Motivations have an adaptive significance  Ie. Sex drive  Help you survive and ultimately get you to the point of reproduction  Adptations  help organism survive, and take the organism to pass on genes for future generations Motivational Theories  Drive Theories (Biological Theory) o A drive is an internal state of tension o Focus on homeostasis  balance o Fundamental: we like to stay in a state of balance and when we are out of that balance, we have an internal tension o Ie. if you are thirsty, you would drink to rebalance the levels  Incentive Theories (Probability Model – mathematical) o An external goal o Expectancy-value models o Models based on what’s happening on outside the individual o Expectancy – expectation/Chance of attaining a goal o Value – how much importance you place on that goal o Generate a probability to how motivated an individual is going to be and how much value does the individual place o Calculate probability of value associated with motivation  **Evolutionary Theories o Natural selection favors behaviors that maximize reproductive success (from against predators) o Reproductive Success – an organism is able to reproduce and pass certain amount of genes to future generation o Environment that the organism is born into, lived in, placed in o Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Physiological  when we have our physiological needs met, we are motivated to provide safety needs  Once those needs are met, we are motivated and focused to achieve the other levels of needs  Motives guide your behavior to self-actualization  This theory suggests that the less likely you are to help others if you aren’t getting enough for yourself The Motivation of Hunger and Eating  Central Nervous System o Anatomy and neurochemistry o The brain and the spinal cord (from previous chapter) o  Peripheral Nervous System o Everything outside of the brain and spinal cord  Hormones o Produced in the brain o Hormones have the ability to travel large distances o Neurotransmitters, they are local transmitters/chemicals o Released from one neuron and released from a synaptic clef and travel to the next neuron  Blood sugar o Glucostatic theory o Glucostatic neurons detect the amount sugar and glucose in your blood o When sugar levels are low, we need to replenish that  Environmental Factors o Ie. Eating at a specific time Hypothalamic Regulation of Eating  Cerebral Cortex – outer layer of the brain o There are subcortical structures underneath the top layer  Thalamus o Center of the subcortical structure o Major region that secretes hormones  Hypothalamus o Receives information regarding nutrient levels in body o Subcortical structure o Major region that secretes hormones  Pituitary Gland  Lateral region (“Side”) o Stimulation (produce action potential) induces eating o Lesions (kill the tissue) produce starvation  Ventromedial region (“towards the bottom in the medial region”) o Lesions induce overreacting o Stimulation inhibits eating  Periventricular nucleus o Regulation in the motivation to eat  Arcuate nucleus o Regulation in the motivation to eat  Nucleus - cluster of neurons (in neuroanamy) Ghrelin  Appetite stimulator  contributes to the motivation to eat  Under normal circumstances, ghrelin levels rises before a meal, and begin to peak after a meal Leptin  Released through fat cells  The number of fat cells remain the same, but the size increase or decrease  When size of fat cells are small, there is a decrease in the amount of leptin being produced  An increase in the size of the fat cells, the amount of leptin also naturally increases  Healthy individual: certain amount of food input and energy output o Ie. exercising a lot, you will be decreasing the amount of leptin being produced and therefore increase in the amount of food you are eating  Obese: high levels of leptin o We naturally decrease in the amount of food we are eating o Even though they have low levels of leptin, a small percentage of individuals, normally don’t decrease in the amount of food they are consuming Sociocultural Factors:  Asked “who do you currently look like?”  “What do you want to look like?”  “What do men find attractive?”  Women rate their body shape as heavier than their ideal and heavier than what they think is attractive Risk and Causal Factors in Obesity  Factors that appear to contribute to the tendency to become obsess include o Genetic inheritance o Hormones involved in appetite and weight regulation o Sociocultural influences o Family influences o Stress and “comfort food” Eating Disorder  The two most common forms of eating disorders is: o Anorexia nervosa o Bulimia nervosa  At the heart of both disorders is: o An intense and pathological fear of becoming overweight o A pursuit of thinness that is relentless and sometimes deadly Anorexia Nervosa  Characterized by: o Fear of gaining weight o Refusal to maintain a normal weight  There are two types of anorexia nervosa: o Dangerous forms of eating disorders o Restricting type  restrict anything from coming into your body ie. do not eat o Binge-eating/purging type  eating more than you normally should be, and eliminating it ie. throwing up or pills  The mortality rate for females with anorexia nervosa is more than twelve times higher than the mortality rate for female aged 15-24 in the general population Bulimia Nervosa  Characterized by: o Frequent episodes of binge eating o Lack of control over eating o Recurrent inappropriate behavior to prevent weight gain  Unlike patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimic patients are typically of normal weight Medical Complication of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa  Anorexia can lead to; o Death from heart arrhythmias o Kidney damage o Renal failure  Bulimia can lead to: o Electrolyte imbalances o Hypokalemia (low potassium) o Damage to hands, throat, and teeth from induced vomiting Male Eating Disorder  Established risk factors: o Sexual orientation o Premorbid (before the disease hits) obesity and being teased as a child
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