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Lecture 11

Detailed Lecture 11 Notes

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Ayesha Khan

Human Development – Lecture (Chapter 11) Developmental Psychology Some Questions …  What does the world look like to a newborn infant? Can they make any sense of their surroundings? o Come up with ways to help individuals who are not capable of speaking  When do infants first recognize their mothers? o Their fathers? o Themselves (in a mirror)?  Why do many 1-year-olds seem so attached to their mothers/fathers and wary of strangers?  Why do you remember so little about the first two years of your life?  How much influence do genes have on a child's behaviors?  Are boys really different from girls? o Sexual motivation?  What's with twins anyway? Are they really different from the rest of us? o Tends to asks difference from a behavioral or developmental perspective Critical Periods  Critical period concept suggests that the brain is set to acquire a function during a limited period of time. o Ie. Language  individual from the age of 3-5 years old and put them into a country with different language. The capacity of the 13-15 year old that moves to another country will have a harder time. o This is because of critical periods  point in life where the brain is able to learn and most receptive to learning a particular skill (in this case language early in life)  If key experiences do not occur during a critical time period, the function may not develop or may not be fully developed o The case of Genie: a girl who was isolated until the age of 13. Although Genie made some gains in language, her syntax never approached normal levels. The case of Genie supports a critical period for language acquisition (yet some point to her gains later in life). o Measles can cause mental retardation if contracted during certain fetal periods. Measles can causes changes in IQ. The brain is more receptive to damage at one point of fetal development Developmental Methodology  Cross-sectional method o Useful for assessing age differences o Not useful for examining age changes o Cohort Effect - Whatever behavior we are collecting in this year, could be very specific to the experiment that this generation is going on for 2015 o The problem is that each age group (cohort) has different life experiences  Longitudinal method o Follow the same individual over a period of time o It is limiting because you are still focusing on that specific individual when they are turning ages  Sequential studies o **COMBINATION o Takes into account a cross-sectional method as well as the longitudinal method o Ie. Collecting information from a group of 7 year olds in 2013, then another group of 7 years old in 2014 o Still sampling from the 7 year old while revisiting the same question Prenatal Development (before birth)  Prenatal period has 3 phases  Germinal period: 1st two weeks after conception o Implantation,  fertilized egg travels in the uterus and plants itself to the uterus wall o **Placenta formation  important in nutrient uptake, waste elimination, gas exchanges  Embryonic period: 3rd to 8th weeks of gestation (pregnancy) o Vital organs (e.g., heart, spine, brain) begin to form  Fetal period: from 9 weeks to birth o Sex organs develop during the 3rd month of gestation o Age of viability (22 weeks to 26 weeks) (even if there is a premature birth, the fetus is still able to survive outside of the uterus) Infant Reflexes (inborn motor responses)  Reflexes are innate motor responses elicited by critical stimuli. o Reflexes are adaptive  Examples of infant reflexes o Rooting reflex: A touch on the cheek induces the infant to move its mouth toward the source of the touch (helps guide feeding). o Sucking reflex: Tactile stimulation of the mouth produces rhythmic sucking. Motor Development  Can this individual meet a mild stone?  Shows that development is occurring in a healthy direction Emotional Development  Temperament o Mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity  ***Mary Ainsworth (1913 - 1999): Attachment relationships depend on sensitivity and responsiveness of caregivers to children’s needs  Came up with four kind of attachment relationships o ***Secure: security, love, a
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