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Lecture 12

Detailed Lecture 12 Notes

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Ayesha Khan

Chapter 12 – Lecture Personality  How you behave  Certain characteristics that allow you to behavior in a particular way Personality Theories of what governs behavior  Psychoanalytic Theory o Freudian perspective o Development o Personality is fixed as a consequence of the experiences you had in childhood  Social Cognitive Learning Theory o Social component and interaction o Cognitive component (thinking capabilities and organizing information) o Learning component  a response to a stimulus or an event in an environment  Humanistic Theory o Idea that human beings are fundamentally are the kinds of creatures that want to achieve the best they can in life  Trait Theory o Biological theory going back to genetics o What makes you behave the way that you do?  Set of genes your parents had, and grandparents had o There are genes coding for certain kinds of characteristics Personality Research  Personality refers to enduring patterns of thought, feeling, motivation and behavior that are expressed in different circumstances o Fundamentals: enduring o The way you are going to behave in one setting is probably the way you are going to behave in another setting  The aim of personality is to: o Construct general theories of personality o Assess individual differences in personality Psychodynamic Views of Personality  Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) o Came to understanding psychology through biological perspective  Freud invoked a role of unconscious processes in the control of behavior o Based on his observations of clients  Topographical model: argued for 3 levels of consciousness o There are three levels of consciousness o 1 level is at the top of our psyche  small amount of space in an individuals mind o Conflict occurs between the different aspects of consciousness o Requires compromise formation  1 level is at the top of our psyche  small amount of space in an individuals mind  Our desires are sitting in the unconscious Three Agencies of the Human Psyche  Id – basic instincts; the reservoir of our most primitive impulses, including sex and aggression o Id drives the behavior based on the pleasure principle o Pleasure Principle – the tendency of the id to strive fro immediate gratification o Ie. With a 2 year old, and if she wants a cookie, she will start poking you  working on the pleasure principle  Ego – the boss; the psyche’s executive and principal decision maker o Reality Principle – the tendency of the ego to postpone gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet o Ie. If you really wanted a cookie, you don’t let everyone know in the lecture and you just think to yourself I’ll just get it later  Superego – our sense of morality o Assumption of what are the societies norms o You start to know your sense from right and wrong Freud’s Model of Personality Structure  Some amount of ego is in the preconscious  Majority of the psyche is in the unconscious  Id has a biological component  drive that are there at the time of birth  Superego is a social component as you learn rules and certain kinds of ethics Freud’s Developmental Model  Human behavior is motivated by two drives (1) Aggression (2) Sex o Libido refers to pleasure-seeking and sensuality as well as desire for intercourse  Libido follows a developmental course o Stages of development o Fixed progression of change from stage to stage o Notion of fixation at a particular libidinal stage  If there is too much pleasure or not enough pleasure driving the libido then there will be fixation  Fixation  occurs in a particular stage in psychosexual stages. Even though you moved on to another stage, that fixation has an impact on you personality later on Freud’s Psychosexual Stages  Personality occurs through the psychosexual stages  Because according to Freud, the drive for sex and aggression is there at birth STAGE** AGE** CONFLICTS AND CONCERNS** ORAL 0-18 months Weaning from breast or the bottle ANAL 2-3 years Toilet training PHALLIC 4-6 years Parental identification, oedipal complex, penis envy, castration complex LATENCY 7-11 years Expanding social contact beyond family GENITAL 12+ years Mature sexuality and relationships  Oral stage: Sensual pleasure is obtained from experiences associated with the mouth  Anal stage: Sensual pleasure is from another target  bottly excretions of holding on to or eliminating  Phallic stage: idea of castration complex/anxiety o Ie. Oedipus o The only way (according this idea) to over come the penis envy, is to have a son herself  Latency stage: sexual urges are expanding their social network  Genital stage: a more mature sexuality Ego Defense Mechanisms  If the ego is the “boss”, the ego is not perfect with certain amounts of limitations  Defense mechanisms are unconscious mental processes that protect the conscious person from anxiety o Engage in a behavior that you don’t know why, but your ego is protecting you  Repression – anxiety-evoking thoughts are kept in the unconscious o Traumatized solider doesn’t remember certain things  Denial – person refuses to recognize reality o You have a test coming up on Monday, it is Sunday and you say even if you study you are going to fail  Projection – person attributes their own acceptable impulses to others o Women who dislikes her boss, but feels like boss doesn’t like her o Person who cheating on their partner, even though you are the one cheating  Reaction Formation – person converts an unacceptable impulse into the opposite impulse o Parent who unconsciously resents a child, but still spoils him or her (opposite impulse)  Sublimation – person converts an unacceptable impulse into a socially acceptable activity o Someone who has a lot of aggressive tendencies and starts doing kick boxing  Rationalization – person explains away their actions to reduce anxiety o We do that all the time  Displacement – diverting emotional feelings from their original source to a substitute target o Get into an argument with your parents and you take it out on your partner (a substitute target) Evaluation of Freud’s Contributions to Personality Theory  Contributions o Emphasis on unconscious processes  Freud says not all information is available to you o Identification of defense mechanisms  to keep anxiety away, defense mechanisms  ego o Importance of childhood experiences in shaping adult personality  Limitations o Theories are not solidly based on scientific ob
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