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Lecture 8

PSY100Y5 Lecture 8: PSY100 Intelligence Lecture

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Dax Urbszat

PSY100 Intelligence Lecture Intelligence(s) Multiple definitions of intelligence: - expressed in different domains eg. Absent minded professor - intelligence is functional eg. Directed at solving problems - intelligence is defined and shaped by culture eg his friend an old guy hunts for fish but works as a mechanic for a living and nobody sees him as an intelligent guy. But if anything happens and we don’t have energy anymore, his intelligence in hunting is invaluable now but his knowledge on hunting will be intelligence is culture bound and culture specific - “what intelligence test measure? Intelligence testing - psychometric approach: devise tests to measure a person’s cognitive level relative to others in a population eg when you do a test and get your mark you will want to know the average so its relative to other people or when you’re writing a test you hope that everyone writing it with you will be dumb so these tests that we use aren’t always fair and its not a good indicator of our general ability - first popularized by Sir Francis Galton • mass testing at an exposition • Galton devised correlation procedure to examine relation between simple measures of intelligence • simple measures of intelligence did not correlate with social class at all • he did not do the politically correct thing at that time and realize that there were stupid rich people and smart poor people • just bc you’re born into a specific social class, it does not reflect your cognitive abilities - Binet and Simon then devised a test to measure intellectual development in children • Devised “mental age” concept: MA = average age at which children achieve an actual score Intelligence quotient You couldn’t compare a a 10 year old to an 8 year old bc the 10has learned two more years and the brain is more developed - to allow for comparison of test scores among persons, L. Terman devised the concept of intelligence quotient (IQ) - IQ = (MA/CA) X 100 - MA=mental age, CA=chronological age - 100 is the average score, if higher than 100 you will get a superior intelligence Frequency distribution of IQ scores Population norms: IQ is pretty well distributed throughout the population validity issues for IQ tests • IQ tests scores are meant to predict ability to succeed in school (valid use) - If you have high IQ you tend to do better in school but it is a correlation not causal - But it is used bc they seem to be predictive of some portion of the variants of most behaviors that we produce • IQ tests are often criticized because of - Minimal theoretical basis (no underlying construct was used to devise tests) - When we create a test for depression we try to isolate and standardized the definition of what we are studying about and we also have theoretical basis behind it empirical evidence - But IQ tests do not have any empirical scientific foundation that says what we learn in school happens to be the best indicator of intelligence - IQ only tests academic intelligence • cultural bias - scores depend on language, cultural experiences o immigrants from Europe were deemed mental defective because they had poor test scores o tests were administered in English to non-english speaking immigrants that is unfair Approaches to intelligence - psychometric approach: statistical techniques are used to define intellectual skills and abilities - only one of them that doesn’t access every kind of intelligence such as social intelligence, verbal intelligence etc - information-processing: examine mental processes - multiple intelligences: notion that intelligence is a function of multiple systems • contextual/ context • intelligence is only useful in the context on where you are living, the time and the place it has to be cultural and temporally relevant • experiential intelligence: one that you deal very quickly with novelty and then you turn novel tasks into normal tasks byt mastering it • that’s problem solving, making use of your abilities • and combinential: experience and knowledge acquisition - social intelligence: Oprah Winfrey doesn’t have the highest education but seems to be intelligent factor analytic approach to intelligence testing - statistical approach in which test items are examined using factor analysis • looks for items that correlate together (Are a common factor) - how many factors? • Thurstone: one common factor “g” • Spearman: two factors - “g” for general intelligence” - “s” for spe
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