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Lecture 11

PSY100Y5 Lecture 11: PSY100 Personality Lecture

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Dax Urbszat

PSY100 Personality Lecture Personality research • personality refers to enduring patterns of thought, feeling, motivation, and behavior that are expressed in different circumstances • our behavior and who we are and turn out to be depends on our predisposition and our exposure to the world and out experience • the aim of personality research is to o construct general theories of o assess individual differences in personality o personality look at extreme behaviour such as personality disorders where the person is inflexible and rigid that there are general differences in our behaviour that we can adjust according to our environment Psychodynamic views of personality • Freud invoked a role of unconscious processes in the control of behaviour - based on his observation of clients • topographical model: argued for 3 levels of conscious - conflict occurs between the different aspect of consciousness - conscious: what you’re thinking about now - preconscious: what is available but you’re not thinking about it - unconscious: stays out of our awareness and consists of our deepest darkest wishes, traumatic events, emotions, fears, memories, animal instincts - requires compromise formation: - all people started off as wild savages and needed to be properly socialized - id threatens the ego with anxiety and that makes the anxiety go away by suing a distraction - e.g id says I want a cookie and the ego says ok, the ego wants to satisfy the ID so the ID does not bring unconscious desires to the surface and inflict anxiety - super ego: embodiment of the laws, rules, norms, morals from the community religion etc, based on morality Freud’s developmental model • human behaviour is motivated by 2 drives - aggressive - sexual o libido refers to pleasure-seeking sensuality as well as desire for intercourse • libido follows a developmental course during childhood - stages of development - fixed progression of change from stage to stage - notion for fixation at a particular libidinal stage - when the libido is not dealt with properly it will lead to a fixation Freud’s psychosexual stages  at each age, there is a stage and thing that you have to satisfy so it wont result in a fixation 1. Oral (0-18mos) - oral zone of pleasure and understanding - conflict: dependence - too much oral gratification: e.g being given the soother too much and it will be expressed in life as it has been over gratified - too little oral gratification orally retentive personality in future, a behavior that regresses back to this stage and helps to retrieve the trapped libidinal energy, we don’t get enough stimulation of the erogenous zone at that stage so at the adult stage, they would always put thing their mouths, keep talking, bite their nails, eat a lot 2. Anal (2-3 yrs) - important first mile stone of a human being, are you competent enough to take care of your excretion or are you useless - conflict: orderliness, cleanliness - interaction between parents and child: if you try to toilet train your child early and critically, this gives the child shame and doubt about themselves, to think that they aren’t competent enough to take care of themselves - at that stage, the child should not be worrying about that - but If you wait too long and the child is reaching 4 still wearing diapers then they are lacking social graces, - a child that is under stimulated at this age becomes anally r`1etentive, someone that is exceedingly neat and organized and requires things to be ordered and - anally expressive: becomes someone that is lazy and procrastinates a lot very sloppy and always late for things 3. Phallic (4-6 yrs) - stimulation of the genitals for children becomes pleasurable - conflict: parental identification, oedipal complex, penis envy, castration complex - young men have the oedipal complex, that have tremendous love for their mothers that they want to marry their mother but they have to get rid of their father - that is an oedipal complex that has to be resolved orderly - castration anxiety: if my dad finds out that I want to marry my mother and kill him he will castrate me - what we have to do to resolve this issue, you have to repress these urges so that you never remember them again - electra complex: when young women wants to marry their father and kill their mother - you may have penis envy as if you have a penis you’ll be a guy and be a first class citizen where males get more power, to vote, to own property to not be a property - so also have to repress your urges, and Electra complex deep down so you never think about it again and resolve the problem 4. Latency (7-11 yrs) - where all our issues and conflicts resolved or not go away, an ideal time of childhood - conflict: sublimation of sexual and aggressive urges 5. Genital (12+yrs) - onset of puberty and adolescence - conflict: mature sexuality and relationships Criticism - these don’t have empirical evidence as doing an experiment on these is unethical - but some studies done on serial killers, have oedipal complexes and kill and rape women that looks like their mother Ego defense mechanism • defense mechanisms are unconscious mental processes that protect the conscious person from anxiety - repression: anxiety-evoking thoughts are kept unconscious - denial: person refuses to recognize reality o e.g deny the consequences etc o e.g a mother refuses to believe that her son died - projection: person attributes their own unacceptable impulses to others o when you’re angry with someone, you ask them ARE YOU ANGRY WITH ME? - reaction formation: person converts an unacceptable impulse into the opposite impulse o e.g when a little boy like a little girl instead of showing affection, he teases her bc in his peer group, girls are gross so he’s mean to her o e.g the homophobic test, they found that some of these young men are aroused by homosexual sex and they have unacceptable homosexual impulses that they don’t want to accept, so they turn it into hate for homosexuals o they’re initial reaction formation is to suppress their sexual desire and repress it - sublimation: person converts an unacceptable impulse into a socially acceptable activity o take a negative impulse and turn it into something positive o even though it is better to be conscious and aware with it and confront it
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