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Lecture

Lab notes 6-10.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Semester
Winter

Description
Lab 6: Recall and Recognition Memory with Signal Detection Analysis Recall Task and the effects of elaborative encoding In the first hour, most of us forget half of the words we were memorizing Serial position curve Primacy effect = we remember the first few words because we repeated them a lot = they are stored in the long term memory Recency effect = when we remember the last few words = they are stored in the short term memory In last year’s experiment, 65% recall in repetition and 68% recall in visualization Repeat Visualize Free 65% 68% Cued 18% 33% (recall word before or after) Proactive vs. Retroactive?  Proactive interference – Previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information st nd  1 list of words is interfering with the 2 list of words  Retroactive – New information impairs the retention of previously learned information nd st  2 list of words is interfering with the 1 list of words Two lists of 20 words seen for 6 seconds IV = type of rehearsal (repetition vs. elaboration) DV = free recall percent correct (not looking at serial order effects today) CV = all common words, 6 seconds of study time, 30 seconds of delay before recall Hypothesis - percent correct for visualization rehearsal should be much higher than for repetition rehearsal How did we control for proactive interference this year? To control for proactive interference:  For odd sections = repeat first then visualize  For even sections = visualize first then repeat If there is response bias,  The participant says “yes” to everything then  Hit rate = high  False alarm = high  The participant says “no” to everything then  Hit rate = low  False alarm = low A "perfect memory" would have  False alarm = 0  Hit rate = 1 Actual stimulus condition Old New (not in the study phase) Yes Hit False alarm No Miss Correct rejection  Why is the percent visualization rehearsal higher than for repetition rehearsal? o Visualization is a method to enrich encoding with an image  There is dual encoding as the memory code is produced from semantic and visual codes o Repetition is easily affected by primacy and recency effect in which the first words and last words are remembered  People can only remember 7 +/- 2 words in their STM Picture Recognition Task and the effect of semantic categories Organized vs. Unorganized We are better at recognition task b/c we have better retrieval cue Ex: multiple choice = the answers are already there Mandler defines organization as pictures being in a schema  People's memory are better when they recall pictures from an organized schema (schema vs. categories) Recognizability (d') = a measure of memory that controls for response bias = a score between 0 and 2 = the higher #, the better memory  Measures memory strength , taking into account the hit rate and false alarm rate  How far apart the two bell curve distribution are (controls for response bias, tendency to favour a response more than another Decision criterion = response bias = if you have a good memory, graphs are completely separated "memory strength" = depends on hit rate and false alarm Standard deviation = how far your score from the mean = out of 1 Last year's data: Org. hit = .72 Unorg. Hit = .62 False alarm = .15 Study of two sets of 40 pictures, and test with 80, some OLD (20 organized/ 20 unorganized) and some NEW IV = whether pictures are organized by categories or in miscellaneous groups (animal, clothing, fruit & veggies, kitchen utensils) DV = hit rate, false alarm rate, recognizability (d') CV= pictures are everyday common objects, old and new pictures come from the same categories and overall appearance, fixed duration of study time, retention interval Hypothesis - when picture memory is measured in a signal detection scenario, the memory strength of pictures studied in Organized categories, should have higher scores than pictures in Unorganized categories Lab7: Positive Psychology and Meditation Herbert Benson - MD & professor at Harvard's Medical School  Discovered the "relaxation" response Experiment: conducting a pre-test/ post-test design Normally, it takes a week to have a good effect  Describe experiment  Questionnaire  Pre-test: memory and attention  Meditation  Post-test  Hypothesis (main and secondary) IV: whether you meditate or not DV: memory - the measurement of memory is how long it takes you to solve math questions (easy/ hard questions) To measure retention, we measure motion illusion  We realize the circles are moving  Then measure the time to make the circles stop moving Seligman - started a new discipline called Positive Psychology in 1998 (believes that happiness is subject of well being)  There are 80,000 research on depression 4,000 on happiness  10 to 20 times more articles on negative than positive  200,000 on treatment, 30,000 on prevention Three major components for happiness  The pleasant life: positive emotion and the skill to amplify it (saying "it's okay")  The good life: flow & engagement, confidence and satisfaction (engaging in tasks)  Meaningful life: meaning & purpose using your strengths in the service of something greater than yourself (skills to help others) Eight steps toward a more satisfying life 1. Count your blessings - have a "gratitude journal"  Note 3-5 things you're currently thankful (need to be a real experience that made you happy) 2. Practice acts of kindness 3. Savor life's joys - pay close attention to things that make you happy 4. Thank a mentor - thank him/her in person 5. Learn to forgive and forget 6. Invest time and energy in friends and family 7. Take care of your body - sleep, eat healthy, exercise, laugh 8. Develop strategies that help you cope with stress Progressive relaxation - when you relax your mind/ body simultaneously Important dates:  1960 - Herbert Benson discovered the relaxation response ("relaxation is amplified by meditation")  Breathe out = brain sends out a message  1990 - Placebo effect - the pill can heal you The power of people's mind to heal themselves   The pharmaceutical company don't like this b/c they lose money  2010 - relaxation revolution - blood test --> taught to meditate --> took another sample --> after meditation, healthy genes were turned on, and disease genes were turned off Benson found that the relaxation response reduces the body's metabolism, heart and breathing rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and calms brain activity, increases the immune response Eight steps to relaxation: 1. Choose a focus word (ex: one), phrase or short prayer for your meditation 2. Find a quiet place and sit still & comfortably 3. Close your eyes 4. Progressively relax your muscles from your feet to your head 5. Focus attention on breathing slowly & naturally 6. Assume a positive attitude 7. Continue doing this for 12-15 minutes 8. Practice this technique at least once a day for at least 30 days Lab 8 Designs: Between subjects - looking for difference between two groups of people Within subjects - looking for difference
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