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Dax Urbszat

PSY100 May 18 th Learning - learning refers to an enduring change in the way an organism responds based on its experience - distinct form o drug effects (caffeine-induced jitters are not learning) o different from fatigue or illness - 3 assumptions of learning theories o 1. responses are learned rather than innate o 2. learning is adaptive o 3. our experiments can uncover the laws of learning  these laws will apply to animals and humans Classical Conditioning - the Russian physiologist Pavlov noted that reflexive salivation in dogs could be elicited by stimuli associated with feeding - reflex: response that is reliably elicited by a stimulus o food elicits salvation o air puff elicits eye blink - reflexive stimulus and response are unconditioned - neutral stimulus is referred to as the conditioned stimulus (CS) - CS is paired with the UCS over many trials - Eventually comes to elicit a conditioned response (CR: resembles the UCR) Pavlov’s experiment - meat is unconditioned stimulus – they salivate (unconditional response) - the bell has no response - pairing the bell and the meat, on the 4 day just rings the bell, if the dog salivates, he created the classical conditioning experience - prior to conditioning: o unconditioned stimulus (meat)  unconditioned response (salvation) o neutral stimulus (bell)  no unconditioned response (no salivation) - during conditioning: o neural stimulus (bell)  UCS (meat)  UCR (salivation) - after conditioning: o conditioned stimulus (bell)  conditioned response (salivation) Acquisition and Extinction - the easier it is to acquire the conditioning, the harder it is to extinguish - acquisition of classical conditioning: o repeated pairings of CS and UCS - extinction: refers to the weakening of conditioning evident when the CS is presented repeatedly without the UCS - spontaneous recovery: refers to the re-emergence of a previously extinguished CR Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination - stimulus generalization occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus o dog gets excited when every car comes into the driveway - stimulus discrimination occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus o dog only gets excited when my car comes into the driveway Classical Conditioning Issues - temporal order of presentation of CS and UCS is important o best conditioning: CS precedes UCS (forward)  greatest resistance to extinction o worst conditioning: UCS precedes CS (backward)  most difficult to have acquisition o simultaneous conditioning: CS and UCS at the same time  slightly less resistance to extinction  still works but not perfectly Conditioned Taste Aversion - if a flavour is followed by an illness experience, animals will avoid the flavour in the future CS + UCS - UCR Taste Toxic Event Nausea CS - CR Flavour Nausea - often develop taste aversi
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